Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Notice of Litigation Essays Notice of Litigation Essay Notice of Litigation Essay Premier CollegeLitigation Hold Notice POLICIESIssued: November 21,2011 Responsible Official: President Responsible Legal Counsel/Chief Information Officer Office: Policy Statement Policy Statement Premier College has a legal obligation to preserve evidence and records, including electronic documents that are relevant to a pending or potential claim or action, such as a government audit, administrative proceeding, or lawsuit. Upon notice of pending litigation or anticipated, Premier College must implement a Litigation Hold Notice that requires the retention of certain paper and electronic records for an indefinite period of time due to pending state or federal litigation. Each employee of Premier College is responsible for acting in compliance with the Litigation Hold Notice regarding the preservation and maintenance of evidence relevant to pending litigation. The Office of Legal Counsel together with the Chief Information Officer at Premier College is responsible for implementing the Litigation Hold Procedures upon notice of the need for a litigation hold to preserve relevant electronically stored information and paper documents. Identifying instances in which a Litigation Hold Notice is required and its subsequent implementation requires collaboration of multiple individuals within , Premier College, including the Records Coordinator. Purpose This policy and procedures applies to all personnel and covers all records, regardless of form, made or received in the transaction of Premier College business. Definition Definitions A Ã¢â¬Å"Litigation Hold Notice is an order to cease destruction and preserve all records, regardless of form, related to the nature or subject of the legal hold. Litigation Hold Procedure The process whereby Premier College sends a notice to all involved departments suspending the normal operation of document destruction polices for particular records relevant to any pending or potential claim or action. Notwithstanding the applicable records retention schedule, documents that are subject to a particular Litigation Hold Notice must be retained until the hold is removed. Records Coordinator The Records Coordinator, as designated by the Vice-President for Business and Finance, has the authority and responsibility to dispose of paper and electronic documents in accordance with approved records disposition authorizations policies, per Premier College Records Management Program. Evidence Includes all records, whether in electronic or paper form, created, received, or maintained in the transaction of University business, whether conducted at home or work. Such evidence may include, but is not limited to, paper records and electronic records stored on servers, desktop or laptop hard drives, tapes, flash drives, memory sticks, DVDs, or CD-ROMs. Electronically Stored Information (ESI) Refers to all forms of electronic data and documents. Electronic records includes all forms of electronic communications, including, but not limited to, e-mail, word processing documents, spreadsheets, databases, instant messages, calendars, voice messages, videotapes, audio recordings, photographs, SharePoint files, Wiki materials, telephone or meeting logs, contact manager information, Internet usage files, and information stored in PDAs, Blackberry devices, or removable media (e. g. , CDs, DVDs, thumb drives, etc. ). Procedures Notification of Litigation . All employees have an affirmative duty to inform the Office of Legal Counsel when they receive notification of any claim or action or threat of any claim or action against the College. 2. Employees are considered to be in receipt of notice of a claim or action when they receive a complaint, summons, and/or other official document(s) related to a lawsuit or claim. 3. The Office of Legal Counsel will determine whether the notification received warrants issuance of a Litigation Hold Notice. Employees Notification of Litigation to Legal Counsel 1. Employees who have notice of any pending or potential claim or action against Premier College must inform the Office of Legal Counsel, in writing, of the matter. The Office of Legal Counsel will determine whether to initiate a legal hold and to identify Premier College personnel subject to the hold. 2. This notification must occur within two business days of their receipt of the notification. Issuance of Litigation Hold Notice Letter 1. College counsel will issue an Official Litigation Hold Notice Letter regarding the matter to the appropriate individuals within five business days of receipt of notification of pending litigation. 2. The Litigation Hold Notice Letter shall provide the categories of electronic and paper documents, including ESI, that must be retained until further notice and that electronic information must be preserved in its original electronic form, so that all information contained within it, whether visible or not, is also available for inspection. Employees Compliance with Litigation Hold Notice Letter 1. All employees who receive notice of the hold must give confirmation of receipt of the hold notice along with a statement agreeing to abide by the litigation hold within one week of receipt of the hold notice. 2. All employees must immediately suspend deletion, purging, overwriting, or any other destruction of electronic information relevant to this dispute that is under their control. This includes electronic information wherever it is stored, including, but not limited to, on hard drives of College work station desktops or laptops, on flash drives, CD-ROMs, DVDs, memory sticks, tapes, zip disks, diskettes, PDAs, etc. 3. This electronic information must be preserved so that it can be retrieved at a later time and must be preserved in its original electronic form, so that all information contained within it, whether visible or not, is also available for inspection. 4. It is not sufficient to make a hard copy of electronic communication. Electronic records must be retained in the original format (e. g. burned to a disk/CD saved in a secure folder on the system server that is not subjected to unannounced deletion, etc. ) 5. It is the responsibility of the individuals to whom the litigation hold notice is issued to retain all records that are responsive to the notice until they receive written notification that the litigation hold has been removed. 6. Preserve any new electronic information that is generated after receipt of the legal hold notice that is relevant to the subject of the notice. This should be done by creating separate mailboxes and files and segregating all future electronically stored information in these separate mailboxes and files. Violations Violations of this policy and procedures are subject to disciplinary action up to and including dismissal. FAQs Q; What is anticipated litigation? A; Litigation is anticipated where Premier College receives information that a claim or dispute has arisen which has a strong possibility of becoming litigation. This is a fact specific inquiry which shall be done in consultation with the Office of Legal Counsel. Some examples include EEOC complaints, Office of Civil Rights complaints, government or internal investigations, and claims filed with the Claims Commission. Q; What happens once I receive the Litigation Hold Notice? A; The Litigation Hold Notice will provide the description of the materials that need to be protected as well as how the information should be stored. The Office of Legal Counsel will provide guidance throughout this process and the Information Technology Division will assist employees in storing relevant ESI.
Saturday, November 23, 2019
The Function of The The Function of Ã¢â¬Å"TheÃ¢â¬ The Function of Ã¢â¬Å"TheÃ¢â¬ By Mark Nichol I found it interesting, when researching this topic, that the definition for the in Merriam-WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s online dictionary is nearly as long as this post and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s for just one set of functions for the word, as a definite article. The also functions, less often, as an adverb (Ã¢â¬Å"I like that one the bestÃ¢â¬ ) and, rarely, a preposition used in place of per (Ã¢â¬Å"Those cost ten dollars the dozenÃ¢â¬ ). And why should anyone feel the need to look the up in the dictionary? IsnÃ¢â¬â¢t it obvious? When it comes to meaning, yes, the role of the in a sentence is clear. But itÃ¢â¬â¢s not always clear whether the cast of characters in the sentence must include that role. Consider the sentence Ã¢â¬Å"I looked out over the land.Ã¢â¬ The writer describes surveying a particular plot of land. However, Ã¢â¬Å"The price of land has gone down latelyÃ¢â¬ omits the because no specific plot of land is being discussed; the topic is the concept of land in general. But notice that in these nearly identical sentences, the difference in meaning seems to be the reverse of the difference in the previous paragraph: Ã¢â¬Å"I poured water out of the pitcherÃ¢â¬ explains what was poured, whereas Ã¢â¬Å"I poured the water out of the pitcherÃ¢â¬ emphasizes where the water came from. Notice, however, that in those examples and the pair that follow, the is a marker for a second reference: Ã¢â¬Å"I put the shoes on and walked outsideÃ¢â¬ emphasizes the particular pair of shoes, which presumably have already been referred to. Ã¢â¬Å"I put shoes on and walked outsideÃ¢â¬ calls no special attention to the shoes; the sentence merely describes the writerÃ¢â¬â¢s routine preliminary to leaving the premises. Sometimes the presence or absence or the in a sentence is irrelevant; the person quoted could have employed either usage: Ã¢â¬Å"SheÃ¢â¬â¢ll have the strawberry cheesecakeÃ¢â¬ identifies the particular dessert a diner wishes to be served, one either visible to the speaker or listed on a menu a literal or implied second reference. Ã¢â¬Å"SheÃ¢â¬â¢ll have strawberry cheesecakeÃ¢â¬ means the same thing with the subtle difference that the speaker is not directly alluding to the dessert selection visible in the form of a slice or a reference in text. However, in the case of the pair of sentences about the shoes, the previous reference may be very important; these are magic shoes weÃ¢â¬â¢re reading about, for example. Ã¢â¬Å"I put shoes on and walked outsideÃ¢â¬ presumably leaves the unusual footwear behind; Ã¢â¬Å"I put the shoes on and walked outsideÃ¢â¬ moves the plot along. The is deliberately omitted in many types of usage. For instance, most references to countries (Ã¢â¬Å"Afghanistan,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"ZimbabweÃ¢â¬ ) need no definite article, nor do references to their citizens (Ã¢â¬Å"Afghanis,Ã¢â¬ ZimbabweansÃ¢â¬ ), unless, again, a particular subgroup is in question (Ã¢â¬Å"The Afghanis in the tour group kept to themselvesÃ¢â¬ ). Exceptions include use of Ã¢â¬Å"the NetherlandsÃ¢â¬ and similar geographically influenced names. The same rule applies to names of other geographical or geopolitical features (Ã¢â¬Å"Mount Everest,Ã¢â¬ but Ã¢â¬Å"the HimalayasÃ¢â¬ ; Ã¢â¬Å"Hawaii,Ã¢â¬ but Ã¢â¬Å"the Hawaiian IslandsÃ¢â¬ ; Ã¢â¬Å"Lake TahoeÃ¢â¬ , but Ã¢â¬Å"the Great Salt LakeÃ¢â¬ ). Oddly, writers who would never make the mistake of omitting the before Ã¢â¬Å"NetherlandsÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"Hawaiian IslandsÃ¢â¬ frequently refrain from preceding names of organizations: Ã¢â¬Å"March of Dimes Foundation was founded in 1938.Ã¢â¬ Admittedly, some names do not merit the definite article, but they are usually obvious (Ã¢â¬Å"Project Reason,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"People for the American WayÃ¢â¬ ). However, logic should override poor usage. The People for the American Way Foundation, associated with the organization named in the latter example, incorrectly self-identifies as Ã¢â¬Å"People for the American Way Foundation.Ã¢â¬ The rule of thumb is that any organizational name ending in a word referring to the entity (foundation, organization, project, etc.) requires the definite article, just as a generic reference such as Ã¢â¬Å"the foundationÃ¢â¬ merits it. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Grammar category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Arrive To vs. Arrive At50 Latin Phrases You Should KnowForming the Comparative of One-syllable Adjectives
Thursday, November 21, 2019
History of African American and European American Families - Article Example These families were ruled by the father where they control women, men mainly called the puritan fathers were the representatives of their families in the political and social affairs of the community. Additionally they had the legal right to choose a spouse for their children. Then puritan family were self sufficient economically since they were large where all the members of the family contributed to the surfaces needed for production. United States also known as the diversity nation, the African American people who also form a large percentage of American population went through for stages in their Americas. These were, slavery that lasted from colonial times until the end of civil war most of these people mainly lived in the south, during their slavery, nuclear family was common. However, the slavery interrupted their organization since they had to freedom to do what they wanted. Slave parents also had no rights in regard to their children. Slave owner treated men and women the same way where any work could have been allocated to either, through peaceful means African Americans fought for their equity which they latter got after a hard
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Athletes and Performance Enhancing Drugs - Essay Example Athletes playing football, hockey, and gymnastics commonly use Creatine. Side effects of taking Creatine include nausea, kidney damage, and weight gain. Anabolic steroids are hormone testosteroneÃ¢â¬â¢s synthetic version (Helmenstine, 2013). Anabolic steroids are used to increase muscle strength and build muscles. Weightlifters and football players commonly take Anabolic steroids. They use can cause damage to liver and heart, halt the growth of bones, and cause the permanent shortage in the body stature. Steroid precursors are substances that are converted into anabolic steroids by the body. Ã Marion Jones was the first woman to be the winner of five medals in total during the Sydney Olympic games of 2000. Her titles were stripped from her after her confession about the use of banned substances (Menton, 2011). Roger Clemons who was once considered to be amongst the greatest pitchers in the history of baseball was accused of using anabolic steroids by the Mitchell Report between the late 1990s and the early 2000s. Lance Armstrong was caught using performance-enhancing drugs and he was deprived of his cycling trophies (Bucholz, 2013). People found it hard to believe that someone could even cheat them at a transportation method. Similarly, many other athletes have been caught using the performance enhancement drugs; Barry Bonds, A-Rod, Manny Ramirez, Ben Johnson, Floyd Landis, and Shawne Merriman to name a few.
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Role of Spirituality in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease Essay Spirituality, as defined in this article entitled Role of Spirituality in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease, is the capacity to rise above life experiences, to celebrate life, and to experience joy. Spirituality is comprised of acceptance, the need for love, mercifulness, and self-fulfillment and it applies to all mankind; on the other hand, being religious is relative to the personÃ¢â¬â¢s religious group and its practices (Cooper-Effa, et al. , 2001). They have divided a personÃ¢â¬â¢s spiritual well-being into involving a religious component or a relationship with God and an existential component, which involves the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of life purpose. It was concluded in this study that those patients with a relatively high existential component were able to cope up more with the pain and the over-all outcome of the disease. It has been known that spirituality can increase the ability to tolerate pain (cited in Landis, 1996). This concept can be applied by getting the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s cooperation and trust, and then the nurse will facilitate a talk about spirituality. This will empower the patient to establish his spirituality and the nurse will also be able to develop closer ties with the patient, improving rapport. The nurse can further help the patient by getting him a spiritual counselor, as per patientÃ¢â¬â¢s request. By helping the patient strengthen his spirituality, an improvement in the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s over-all outlook on the disease, on life, and a probability of lesser pain may take place. Holistic practice in nursing is very important nowadays. As a nurse, there are several skills that should be present to help clientÃ¢â¬â¢s achievement of spiritual needs. The nurse should be open to all kinds of religion and beliefs, he must try to maintain open minded. He or she should respect these beliefs and religious practices by not questioning the nature of these and by participating in these activities whenever the client wishes the nurse to. Also, nurses cannot let their own beliefs take over them. If there are circumstances wherein the nurse finds that he is unable to accept a clientÃ¢â¬â¢s belief or practice, then it would be best for the nurse to ask for help from another nurse discreetly. Patience, understanding, and wisdom are needed for a successful patient and nurse interaction. References Journal of the American Board of Family Practice. (2001). Role of Spirituality in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease. Retrieved February 01, 2008, from http://www. medscape. com/viewarticle/405838_1.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Mendel's Peas and Hawkweeds Works Cited Missing Many Scientists have contributed to the field of genetics. Yet the groundwork for today's modern genetics can be found in the work done by one man, Gregor Mendel. While there were many scientists who tried to answer the same questions before him, none were able to come to the successful conclusions he did. Before Mendel's experiments, many other theories had been in place to answer the questions about why we look like our parents. Many of these beliefs were myths, and the true reasons behind heredity were not sought, because creation was the belief of the majority of people. Some of these beliefs include "'The preformation theory"' (Bowler, 2), in which it was believed that "the embryo grew from a perfectly formed miniature already present in the mother's womb ( or the father's sperm)." (Bowler, 2) Another theory was that of "'blending inheritance' in which the offspring's characters were always intermediate between those of its parents." (Bowler, 3) It was in the time of these theories that Mendel did his work, which was dismissed as stated in the story. Mendel was a monk who taught in the monastery, and he did his experiments in the garden outside the monastery while teaching as said in the book. His main focus was on the garden pea, Pisum sativum. One peculiarity of pea reproduction is that the petals of the flower close down Tightly, preventing pollen grains from entering or leaving. This enforces a system of self-fertilization, in which sperm and eggs from a particular flower Unite with each other to produce seeds. As a result, individual pee strains are Highly inbred, displaying little, if any genetic variation from one generation to The next. Because of this uniformity, we say that such strains are true-breeding. ( Snustad, 42) In his experiments, Mendel tested many different traits. Among them were the following traits and the frequencies each appeared in: Mendel was successful in his experiments, because he tested one trait at a time, as compared to other scientists who tried to follow multiple traits. This is what allowed him to be successful, although with what we know now, it is easier to follow many traits at a time. In his first set of experiments, he crossed tall varieties with dwarf varieties. To do this, He carefully removed the anthers from one variety before its pollen had matured and then applied pollen from the other variety to the stigma.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Operating System Security Security is the most important part of an operating system when it comes to keeping the system and its information safe. There are various aspects to the security piece in an operating system; which are protocols, kernel and encryption. The UNIX/LINIX, Apple and Windows Server 2008 all have protocol, kernel and encryption features. These features need to be enabled to the highest level in order to have the most security for each of these operating systems. Even though some of these features are already enabled to some level by default, the security level still can be raised for more protection. Starting with the UNIX/LINUX versus Apple operating systems, the most secured versions of these operating systems will be used to demonstrate which is more secured. There are two aspects of these operating systems, desktop and server, however we will stay with the desktop versions of these operating systems. This will allow a more forward approach, so that it will be more understandable for the end user. The LINUX Red Hat Enterprise edition offers the most security of any of the other editions of UNIX/LINUX desktop versions. The protocols of this operating system offer some level of security but there are no new approved security measures built into the security stack. This allows hackers/attacker to be able to gain access easier than newer security measures. One of the newest measures of security in LINUX is SELinux this includes enhancements to the kernel in the LINUX operating system. It provides a security measures that enables access control security policies. This level of security also includes MAC (mandatory access controls) which is a government style level of security measure. This kernel security measure is the highest level of security that this operating system has to offer. When looking into the Apple operating system, OS X offers the most protection of any version of Apple operating system. One of the main security features in the Apple OS (operating system) is XProtect, this feature is used to add the highest level of security to browsers. However, the older versions of Safari and Mail will no longer be able to run once this security update is applied to the OS. And this makes this OS have less functionality than it would normally in a browser aspect. The OS X version 1.6 code name snow leopard is the Apple OS security that we will be discussing. The highest level of security that this Apple OS has to offer is the hidden malware protection that it provides. This Apple OS has a built in system that detects malicious software and attempts to protect the system from the user to prevent him/her from damaging their system(s). However, since the malware are quarantined and not deleted/removed, it poses another security issue. Unfortunately, Apple has been slow when it comes to security threats and so we will have to see if there will be any additional security measures in the future. The Windows Server 2008 is the most secured Windows operating system available and also has the most security features available than any other OS developed by Microsoft. The Windows Server 2008 has an improved firewall and advanced security features. Incoming and outgoing filters can be customized and configured to the level and flexibility needed by the user. NAP (network access protection is an advanced security feature of Windows Server 2008. This feature helps keep unsecured computers from accessing the network of a business and also a single computer or home based network as well. This OS does allow external access from remote computers by mitigating possible security breaches. The NAP security feature is an enhancement of the NPS (network policy server) feature from Windows Server 2003. And so it is a proven security feature with proven results and is the highest advanced security feature available in Windows Server 2008.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
While Casablanca is one of the most know, satirized and often many lines repeated, the unsung hero of the movie is its music. Everyone knows Ã¢â¬Å"As time goes byÃ¢â¬ , but after seeing the movie can you think of any other music from this classic. People who have seen Casablanca dozens of times ( my father ) in their life can only remember Ã¢â¬Å"As time goes byÃ¢â¬ . This song brings back the happy memories of Ilsa and Rick in Paris. When Rick tells Sam not to play that song, is it possible that Rick never wants to remember the good times with a woman he will never see again or his alcoholic self destructive nature depriving himself of any happiness. Ilsa on the other hand wants to remember the good times and that is why she asks Sam to Play it. In the scene following RickÃ¢â¬â¢s refusal to sell Laszlo the letters of transit, the German officers start singing a German song Die Wacht Am Rhein. Victor Laszlo never one to let the Germans get the upper hand asks the band to play La Marsellaise. Many in the crowd sing along to La Marsellaise as well as Laszlo. The German officers try in vain to out sing the crowd, but with their small numbers and their Nazi cause, the French Anthem wins the day. Shortly after this, Major Strasser orders Captain Renault to close down RickÃ¢â¬â¢s. Two competing songs bring the closure of our heroes night club, a pivotal point in the movie, and few if any can remember the names of the 2 songs nor even hum a few bars. This scene also places Victor Laszlo on top of Major StrasserÃ¢â¬â¢s list of things he needs to clean up in Casablanca. So why is it that 2 epic anthemÃ¢â¬â¢s, such a critical part of this film goes unheard and a song like Ã¢â¬Å"As time goes byÃ¢â¬ is sung, hummed and quoted so often. It is my belief that Ã¢â¬Å"As time goes by Ã¢â¬Å" brings back the memories of the good times and Die Wacht Am Rhein and La Marsellaise bring up the confrontation that many go to the movies to forget. The next time I see Casablanca, I will be humming Ã¢â¬Å"As time goes by.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"The Talented or the OpinionatedÃ¢â¬ Although the Japanese educational system meets the challenges of our everyday world, the American educational system tends to focus on free will, and expressing opinions pushing the children to exceed their creative limits. In her article Ã¢â¬Å"The Japanese and American Educational Methods,Ã¢â¬ Jane Korission states that most American high school students are underachievers, and are not pushed enough to reach their ultimate goals whereas, Japanese students have shown the best performance in all categories of the mathematics exams. Ã¢â¬Å"The entrance exams are a large part of the academic curriculum, but a stronger emphasis is place on preparing students to get used to living and working within a group-oriented society.Ã¢â¬ The Japanese system has an excellent curriculum, and although students might learn many things effectively, they get too much homework and will not have free time to enjoy themselves. In his article Ã¢â¬Å"About the Japanese Educational System,Ã¢â¬ Hans Lee explains that in America, though curriculum could not compare to Japan, American students have time to vent, and spend time with their friends after class because there is less homework. Ã¢â¬Å"Although there is a low crime rate in Japan because there are many strict rules these rules make the students stressful, so the number of teenager's suicide and juvenile delinquencies are rising.Ã¢â¬ The way of killing is also being cruel these days. Japanese education makes students learn many subjects and students are able to find something they like, but that is possible only at school. Students must study even after school, so they will not have time to increase their talents. On the contrary, American students have more time to express themselves because there are fewer subjects to study. There is too much free time after school in America so it is likely for the students to waste their times. However, this system allows the teachers to t... Free Essays on Talented Or Opinionated Free Essays on Talented Or Opinionated Ã¢â¬Å"The Talented or the OpinionatedÃ¢â¬ Although the Japanese educational system meets the challenges of our everyday world, the American educational system tends to focus on free will, and expressing opinions pushing the children to exceed their creative limits. In her article Ã¢â¬Å"The Japanese and American Educational Methods,Ã¢â¬ Jane Korission states that most American high school students are underachievers, and are not pushed enough to reach their ultimate goals whereas, Japanese students have shown the best performance in all categories of the mathematics exams. Ã¢â¬Å"The entrance exams are a large part of the academic curriculum, but a stronger emphasis is place on preparing students to get used to living and working within a group-oriented society.Ã¢â¬ The Japanese system has an excellent curriculum, and although students might learn many things effectively, they get too much homework and will not have free time to enjoy themselves. In his article Ã¢â¬Å"About the Japanese Educational System,Ã¢â¬ Hans Lee explains that in America, though curriculum could not compare to Japan, American students have time to vent, and spend time with their friends after class because there is less homework. Ã¢â¬Å"Although there is a low crime rate in Japan because there are many strict rules these rules make the students stressful, so the number of teenager's suicide and juvenile delinquencies are rising.Ã¢â¬ The way of killing is also being cruel these days. Japanese education makes students learn many subjects and students are able to find something they like, but that is possible only at school. Students must study even after school, so they will not have time to increase their talents. On the contrary, American students have more time to express themselves because there are fewer subjects to study. There is too much free time after school in America so it is likely for the students to waste their times. However, this system allows the teachers to t...
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Mendel's Law of Independent Assortment In the 1860s, a monk named Gregor Mendel discovered many of the principles that govern heredity. One of these principles, now known as Mendels law of independent assortment, states that allele pairs separate during the formation of gametes. This means that traits are transmitted to offspring independently of one another. Mendel discovered this principle after performing dihybrid crosses between plants that had two traits, such as seed color and pod color, that differed from one another. After these plants were allowed to self-pollinate, he noticed that the same ratio of 9:3:3:1 appeared among the offspring. Mendel concluded that traits were transmitted to offspring independently. The image above shows a true-breeding plant with the dominant traits of green pod color (GG) and yellow seed color (YY) being cross-pollinated with a true-breeding plant with yellow pod color (gg) and green seed color (yy). The resulting offspring are all heterozygous for green pod color and yellow seed color (GgYy). If the offspring are allowed to self pollinate, a 9:3:3:1 ratio will be seen in the next generation. About nineÃ plants will have green pods and yellow seeds, three will have green pods and green seeds, three will have yellow pods and yellow seeds, and one will have a yellow pod and green seeds. This distribution of traits of typical of dihybrid crosses. Mendel's Law of Segregation Foundational to the law of independent assortment is the law of segregation. Mendels earlier experiments led him to formulate this genetics principle. The law of segregation is based on four main concepts. The first is that genes exist in more than one form or allele. Secondly, organisms inherit two alleles (one from each parent) during sexual reproduction. Thirdly, these alleles separate during meiosis, leaving each gamete with one allele for a single trait. Finally, heterozygous alleles exhibit complete dominance, as one allele is dominant and the other is recessive. It is the segregation of alleles that allows for the independent transmission of traits. Non-Mendelian Inheritance Some patterns of inheritance do not exhibit regular Mendelian segregation patterns. In incomplete dominance, for example, one allele does not completely dominate the other. This results in a third phenotype that is a mixture of those observed in the parent alleles. An example of incomplete dominance can be seen in snapdragon plants. A red snapdragon plant that is cross-pollinated with a white snapdragon plant produces pink snapdragon offspring. In co-dominance, both alleles are fully expressed. This results in a third phenotype that displays distinct characteristics of both alleles. For example, when red tulips are crossed with white tulips, the resulting offspring sometimes have flowers that are both red and white. While most genes contain two allele forms, some have multiple alleles for a trait. A common example of this in humans is ABO blood type. ABO blood types have three alleles, which are represented as (IA, IB, IO). Some traits are polygenic, which means that they are controlled by more than one gene. These genes may have two or more alleles for a specific trait. Polygenic traits have many possible phenotypes. Examples of such traits include skin color and eye color.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Corporate Code of Conduct - Essay Example The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is one of the world's largest information technology corporations and is worldwide known for its printers and personal computers. Headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States, it has a global presence in the fields of computing, printing, and digital imaging, and also provides software and services. Hewlett Packard has reached the US$91.7 billion mark in annual revenue just this 2006. Hewlett Packard is now facing off and accelerating its business weapons to topple the higher ranked competitor called with IBM in order to be acknowledged as one of the best in the realm of world's largest technology vendor in terms of sales. Hewlett Packard has finally, after many years of painstaking hard work, has been recognized as the No. 1 ranked in terms of worldwide personal computer shipments from its arch rival Dell. Environment. Hewlett Packard has been implementing the best practices in its environment. The company is doing this environmental Code of Conduct by addressing its environmental footprint through by its increased introduction of computer recycling programs and partnerships. The company has good disclosure reporting standard and it produces an environmental report in compliance with the Global Reporting Initiative, a global framework for reporting. Hewlett Packard has a robust Environment, Health, and Safety (EHS) management system which is patterned on recognized international models like the ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001. The company has strong performance, as evidenced by the continuously increasing energy efficiency of HP laptops. HP voluntarily participates in beyond-compliance programs including the Energy Star and the PFC Emissions Reduction Partnership. Hewlett Packard has been named as a potentially responsible partner in 15 Superfund remediation sites. Workplace. Hewlett Packard implements the best practices in its company workplace area. The company is energetically imposing many relevant policies and programs in diversity, labor relations and safety, It has put into actuality its workplace safety program that which also includes ergonomics and job-specific training. Like it competing computer companies, Hewlett Packard is working to reduce and even eliminate work conditions throughout the company's supply chain. Hewlett Packard is expecting its suppliers to have a spotless record in terms labor practices and occupational health and safety. Hewlett Packard has launched the Supply Chain Social and Environmental Responsibility Program to address in order to comply with this issue. Hewlett Packard's diversity programs includes many affinity groups, outreach efforts and domestic partner benefits. Aside from offering a comprehensive workplace safety program, Hewlett Packard's risk-reduction activities includes personal communication an d follow-up with employees. Hewlett Packard's human rights and labor policy includes supporting international human rights and recognition of the rights of employees to organize into labor unions if they choose to do so. As of the present and it is expected to continue, there is no incidence of labor unrest, safety violations, or discrimination of employees and other affected persons. Hewlett Packard has currently incorporated computer programs so that its products are designed to allow full access by more persons