Wednesday, July 31, 2019

An Analysis of Saigon Morin Hotel in Hue City Thorough 7ps in Marketing Strategies

TITLE An analysis of Saigon Morin Hotel in Hue city thorough 7Ps in marketing strategies INTRODUCTION The ability to market a hotel in the appropriate way to the appropriate market is essential to the success of the business. For this to succeed, those in key roles need to understand the product that they are selling and the market to which it is being sold. Managers maximize their returns through understanding the market they are operating in and applying those marketing techniques that can best attract guests. Hotels are a service industry. Hotel products have the following characteristics: inseparability, intangibility, perishability, and variability. As society has changed, with people having more disposable income and more free time, there has been a growing awareness and desire by a greater number of people for service-orientated products such as hotels. Along with this growth, understanding is needed for the products that are being marketed. Since the early 1960s many marketers have been using the â€Å"4Ps† marketing mix: (1) product, (2) price, (3) promotion, (4) place. Consideration is given to the change that would result from varying the product, price, promotion, and place in achievement of the organization goals. However, use of the 4Ps is limiting when considering a service orientated business such as a hotel as it does not adequately reflect the complexity of the product. In response to the limitations of the 4Ps marketing mix, Booms and Bitner (1981) proposed a 7P marketing mix. These 7Ps included the 4Ps, adding People, Process, and Physical evidence. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Marketing mix plays an important role in enhancing business efficiency of enterprises. Nowadays, it does apply to not only the material products but also the services, lodging service for example. The marketing mix has affected dramatically customer satisfaction, cutting edge of competitiveness of service enterprises†¦ Saigon Morin Hotel is well-known as the leading hotel in Hue. However, it has been strived to overcome threats coming from the market. Above all, they are faced to the new potential competitors, such as Celadon Hotel, La Resident Hotel, Hue Green Hotel, etc†¦ PURPOSE In order to enhance the business efficiency of Saigon Morin Hotel, the study was carried out on the efforts putting the marketing mix into practice from the customer viewpoints, from which solutions was made to improve the marketing mix for the hotel businesses. The aim of my research is to assess the implementation of marketing-mix product stay at Hotel Saigon Morin, which focused analysis of state marketing-mix elements of the hotel, identifying constraint. The purpose is to propose solutions to improve marketing-mix policies contribute to resolving the issues. METHODOLOGY Research of my topic will require the collection of many statistically figures and hard data. For this reason, I will collect a good part of the data from online sources and files. The theoretical framework is based on â€Å"Principles & Practice of Marketing† book by Jim Blythe. This framework illustrated the outline of marketing planning process for service organizations. However, the phase of formulating marketing objectives and strategies will be focused. When researching the Saigon Morin Hotel, I will depend highly on files and documentation of statistical figures as well as my ability to collect information from managers and employees via the interview process. A good part of my research period will be spent in Hue city interviewing Saigon Morin Hotel customers and non Saigon Morin Hotel consumers alike to gain differing perspectives on the hotel industry. Interviews will be conducted with the help of my uncle who is currently working for Saigon Morin Hotel. I plan to spend time in this hotel interviewing customers and employees of the hotel to understand how this hotel has personally affected the people. Furthermore, I plan to spend a brief period in this hotel interviewing the Sales and Marketing manager in order to understand how the people at base of this hotel industry have been impacted by the global expansion of this hotel. Lastly, observational skills will be essential in all stages of my research in order to gain a first-hand perspective of the role that 7Ps plays in the success of the hotels and analyze how 7Ps affected in the operation of this hotel industry. LIMITATIONS This research has numerous restrictions that must be taken into account for including: a short time frame, my level of experience, my skills in research methods, language barrier. I remain optimistic that all the limitations foreseen can be overcome. DESCRIPTION OF THE HOTEL Built in 1901 by French, the Morin Hotel is one of the oldest hotels in Vietnam. Survived through many wars, this is more than a hotel. It is a part of the history of Hue city in the last 100 years. Now lovingly restored to its century-old glory, Saigon Morin is once ready to live up to its reputation as the choice of celebrities, intrepid adventures and businessmen. The Hotel offers everything a discerning traveler would expect form a world class hotel without sacrificing the old world charm that made the Morin Hotel legendary. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION According to the statistics, customers staying in Saigon Morin Hotel stated that 88% people are willing to recommend this hotel to others. What is more, the level of this hotel among 123 people is listed below: Excellent: 52 people Very good: 45 people Average: 15 people Poor: 7 people Terrible: 3 people Ms. Phika from UK said â€Å"Great Hotel in Hue. We stayed in a deluxe river view room. There are marble floors in the hall and bath, the rest is hardwood and it is creaky†¦ no sneaking quietly to the bath at night. The room was bright, the lighting good with one window wall with a view of the Perfume River. The plumbing is very modern and cool. The king size bed is comfortable and elegant looking when you arrive. The pillows to sleep on were huge and gave neck pain the next day, so I ended up sleeping on a smaller decorator pillow. The staffs are very helpful and kind. The included buffet breakfast has a good selection and lunch is good at $9 U. S. for pizza/soup or sandwich. The fitness area really needs a better lay out! Right now the bathrooms are in the restaurant, the equipment in an open area and a shower outside with a curtain. You would have to dry off and dress in the shower. Other than that, it is a wonderful five star hotel and we certainly would use it again. † Ms. Susan Skate from Florida, America said: â€Å"Loved this hotel! I've been all over the world on business, and I've rarely had a bigger or more beautiful room, complete with lovely seating area with French doors opening onto a balcony that overlooked the riverfront street below. Staff was friendly, food excellent and the halls were lined with vintage photos of the colonial days of Hue, perhaps Vietnam's most beautiful city. If you're here on business, internet connections were good, though allow time to see this fabulous city! † RESEARCH RESULTS 1. Characteristics of the hotel guests source Customers primarily Saigon Morin Hotel is the tourists that require high quality good service and high affordability. Situation of customers and fluctuations target market of the hotel were studied through data in the period 2002-2004. Market primarily Saigon Morin Hotel is international guests. International visitors in 2002 accounting for 94. 6% of total visitors in 2004 accounting for 92. 7%. Particularly in 2003, the proportion of international visitors was reduced to 86. 5% due to the impact of the Sars epidemic. Most come from France, America and Japan. Total number of visitors from these three markets account for more than 50% of international tourists and visitors from other sources in this market also tends to increase over the years in the period. Based on these statistics, the project has identified target market is the French market customers. Two very large market potential for hotel focus is directed to the American market customers and customer markets in Japan. 2. Fluctuation on the number of guests to the hotel – the seasonal Observation chart shows the fluctuations of the number of visitors over the months in 2002 and 2004, we easily recognize the seasonal computer products stay in the hotel's Saigon Morin. High season welcoming guests of the hotel is between October and March next year. At this season, booking a large volume, while the capacity of the hotel reception is limited, therefore, the planning reception guests are considered the most important work. In the summer, although the peak season for domestic tourists but Saigon Morin Hotel start season away customers because the weather is too hot at this time – type the harsh summer climate is not suitable for travel habits calendar of most tourist Europe, America. Review the implementation of marketing-mix elements of the hotel Topics conducted evaluating the implementation of marketing-mix elements based on the reviews of customers about the marketing policies of the hotel. Likert scale used to measure customer perception of marketing policy of the hotel. Assessment of clients felt made based on statistical frequency and point average (see table 1) Group 1: Average Scores on the satisfaction of customers with Product stay hotel |The criteria |Mean frequencies and statistics | | |n |Mean |Standard Deviation | |1 – Product Policy | | | | |Trademarks |125 |4. 7 |0. 96 | |Professional |125 |4. 09 |0. 74 | |Enthusiasm |125 |4. 22 |1. 28 | |Advantage position |125 |4. 46 |0. 85 | |Beautiful scenery |125 |4. 45 |1. 84 | |Comfort level |125 |4. 01 |1. 2 | |Sanitation |125 |3. 91 |1. 56 | |Safety |125 |4. 18 |0. 71 | |Food supplements |125 |3. 40 |1. 93 | |2 – Price Policy | | | | |Calculated satisfactorily |125 |3. 5 |0. 53 | |Competitive |125 |3. 72 |0. 98 | |Flexibility |125 |3. 27 |0. 64 | |Information for visitors |125 |3. 36 |0. 1 | |3 – Distribution Policy | | | | |Communication Arts |125 |3. 97 |1. 13 | |Identify and meet needs |125 |4. 10 |1. 28 | |Practices professional welcome guests |125 |3. 90 |0. 94 | | Gadget information |125 |3. 3 |0. 68 | |4 – Promotion Policy | | | | |Methods promote |125 |3. 74 |1. 12 | |Content Information |125 |4. 26 |0. 98 | |Effective |125 |4. 18 |0. 76 | (Source: The total number of sample surveys. Apr point Likert: 5-Very satisfied, 1-Dissatisfied). ? * D? i v? i chinh sach s? n ph? m, di? m trung binh c? a cac tieu chi du? c danh gia kha cao, For policy products, the average score of the criteria are evaluated fairly high, above 4 points. However, the needs of customers around the fact that so very diverse in some criteria are relatively large standard deviations. ? For pricing, the average score in the range from 3 to 4 points and standard deviation of the statistics does not show that most large customers are not really happy with the pricing of the hotel. Considering on the market aspects these results show the status of supply and demand larger customers to accept higher prices. Here, again explained the strategic pricing Skimming price of the hotel. ? For distribution policy, customers were able to evaluate better identify and meet customer needs by staff in the hotel. This is actually a strong point of the hotel because of the ability to identify and meet the needs of customers will stimulate more customer needs a new higher level, more diversified. ? For policy promotion, customers appreciate the content information of the hotel product. With the significant (? 0. 05), the average standard deviation is 4. 26 and 0. 98 has shown the influence of information content of the advertising message to the detailed evaluation of customer policy in promoting the hotel product. 3. Analysis of factors affecting the policy development for the product marketing mix-stay hotel By using the factors selected for study evaluation of marketing polic ies of the hotel as independent variables affect the overall assessment of policy marketing-mix of customers, we use the model feedback Stepwise Regression for the rules selected variables affect the feelings of many customers. With a variable selection criteria for inclusion in the model is the probability of F ? 0. 05 and statistical criteria to make a variable from the model is statistical probability of F ? 0. 10; through the steps of current, Stepwise Regression method of selecting the factors have significant impact felt by customers for each marketing policy of the hotel. Regression models obtained from the specific results of data processing as follows: ? 2. 3. 1 K? t qu? phan tich cac nhan t? ?nh hu? ng d? n chinh sach s? n ph? m c? a khach s? n The analysis of factors affecting the policy of the hotel roduct Four-step implementation, the Stepwise Regression method selected four factors are related linearly to the customers feel about the policies of the enterprise product, the brand, safety, professionalism and advantages the location of hotels. ? The analysis of factors affecting the pricing of the hotel Two steps of implementation, Stepwise Regression method of selecting two factors have a major impact on customer evaluations of the hotel pricing is calculated by the price and adequate information about the ability to price policies hotel customers. The analysis of factors affecting the distribution policy of the hotel Regression Stepwise regression method was chosen two elements are related closely (linear relationship) with detailed reviews of customers about the distribution policy of the hotel is its pure in professional welcome guests Practices and the level of utility system needs to receive bookings for guests. Here are two factors that customers place the greatest concern expressed about the level of satisfaction in marketing distribution policy-mix of the hotel. The analysis of factors affecting the promotion policy of the hotel From the results on the treatment Regression Stepwise regression models, has identified two factors of group policies to promote products is related linearly to detailed reviews of customers about the marketing-mix policies. Thus, if the h otel focuses on content selection to promote an effective way to increase customer reviews a review on the content level of customer satisfaction marketing-mix policies of the hotel will increase 0. 207 points. Similar explanation, we will see the impact of the selection methods to promote products to the effectiveness of marketing-mix policies of the entire company. People refer to the customers, employees, management and everybody else involved in it. It is essential for everyone to realize that the reputation of the brand that you are involved with is in the people's hands. To be able to understand those characteristics it is necessary to comprehend the basic human characteristics of needs, wants, and demands. People, including employees, stakeholders, and guests, are the core component of the hotel industry. A key part of marketing a hotel to the guest requires an understanding of the needs, wants, and demands of the potential and returning guest. ? Needs – human beings have many basic needs including food, clothing, safety, feeling of belonging, and so on. When these basic needs are not met the person takes one of two actions: (1) looks for an object that will satisfy the need, or (2) tries to reduce the need. These are influenced by individual personality and culture. ? Wants – communication of needs – wants are viewed as things that will satisfy needs. Demands – buying power of wants – people have many wants, but may only have limited ability to purchase; when a person has the ability to purchase a want it becomes a demand. The decision to purchase a hotel product normally begins with a need and is affected by some type of stimuli, for example a television commercial, a newspaper advertisement, or the Internet. In many situations the development of a need is a subtle process. Although it may be observed that some people suddenly express that they need something, often this is the outward expression of a developing inner feeling of need. Training has to be on a wide perspective as, even nowadays, there is a big demand of basic training skills, the hotel industry will need, in the near future, a big number of well-trained staff at all levels of the structure, from top management to basic staff like waiters, etc. It refers to the methods and process of providing a service and is hence essential to have a thorough knowledge on whether the services are helpful to the customers, if they are provided in time, if the customers are informed in hand about the services and many such things. The development of needs in the consumer is a major component of marketing success. In the selection process, customers make repeated decisions as they continually attempt to satisfy their perceived needs. Potential customers looking for a hotel room make a number of decisions when choosing where to stay. The process that they go through in the selection of a product is important for hotel management to understand. Management should know (1) that a particular hotel will be evaluated differently by different guests, (2) where a particular guest is satisfied with one hotel that they may be dissatisfied with another, and (3) the perceptions of guests change over time and with experience. The decision process by potential guests is a complex process. All consumers are the same, they are influenced by numerous factors such as personality, culture and so on. When their needs are put into a condition where they can be communicated they then become wants. There are the things that a person perceives as having the power to satisfy their needs. This is the beginning of the search process, and the selection of alternatives that would have the ability to satisfy the needs. Although a consumer may identify many needs and wants, not all of these are converted into a demand for a product. As a result of limited ability to purchase, only a few of the needs and wants may be converted into demands. The ability to purchase relates to the many factors that make up the individual, which include such things as age, income, life experience, gender, previous purchase experiences, etc. An important part of the marketing process is therefore to understand those characteristics that make us individuals and to try to recognize this in such a way that there is a large enough market to successfully target. This process is called market segmentation. To adapt all organizational processes, public and private, in order to become highly competitive in the markets. 4. Other problems exist in the policy-mix Marketing By studying the status of development and implementation of policies for marketing mix products stay hotel, the project has discovered a number of problems exist as follows: First, the policy of the hotel product still matters inadequacies, not bring high satisfaction to customers. The most noteworthy point is the system of complementary products of the hotel also monotonous and lack of tourists has found that demand true. Second factor in the pricing information of the product has not stay just lack sufficient flexibility has become a problem hindering attraction of the hotel guests. Thirdly, marketing plan of Saigon Morin Hotel was a matter of professionalism in the process of distributing products to the market (actually done work and selling) of the hotel still many problems to overcome. Finally, the existence of the work is to promote and advertise products. Besides the way of marketing effectiveness, creating a good impression to customers, policies to promote products of the hotel is still a gap between supply and demand. 5. The solutions to improve the policy mix in Marketing-Hotel Saigon Morin †¢ A good quality service when it meets the needs and expectations of customers. Therefore, the policy development products, hotels have researched the ability to match the product to market, especially the target market. †¢ For high culture and art of receiving and processing feedback from customers. Upon receiving the feedback from customers, the receiving departments must explain how, skillfully handled in the shortest time. †¢ Hotels have agreed a methodology than science products, has had to rely on the specific objectives of the hotel as input costs, power use prevention and plans for sales but also to based on factors beyond the control of seasonal businesses such as computer, the competition in the market. †¢ In reality, there are some guests are not as profitable but higher for hotels large effect in promoting the image and enhance the prestige of the hotel. In this case, the hotel should not be too focused on sales targets which must seize the opportunity to perform activities public relations (PR – Publish Relation). †¢ Hotels must continue to improve the system of distribution channels. Special consideration must be to develop more representative offices in the domestic market and a source of major customers such as Japan, America, Germany †¦ †¢ Activities to promote, promote products must consider two issues mainly the content and methods to promote products. Depending on the object receiving the broadcast messages must be designed to match and bring the most effective. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION The hotel industry is highly competitive and the right knowledge about customer values and demands is essential to differentiate from competitors and gain sustainable competitive advantage. Implementing traditional marketing strategies is often no longer enough to achieve this goal. Relationship marketing has increasingly become more important, as this concept suggests more focus on retaining the customer and creating a win- win situation with a long- term perspective. In traditional marketing there is more focus on acquisition. Most importantly a good balance between acquisition and retention directed to the right segments is essential for future success. Marketing-mix of the overall effort of the business, it is not just built for a tangible product, but also often made for products and services such as product staying. Elements of the marketing-mix is as extremely important role in directing the business operations of the hotel stay and raise the competitiveness of the hotel market. Study of components marketing-mix policies of the Saigon Morin Hotel, we found that, besides the outstanding marketing can be effective for products of the hotel, there are still some problems exist as a system of complementary products also monotonous, lack of product has its own characteristics and meet the demands of the customer (product), pricing policy of the hotel still lacks flexibility, the valuation information to customers lack sufficient (Price), the procedure has not reached professional levels of expertise (distribution) and methods to promote the product not really effective, it is still a gap between supply and demand (Promotion). This reality requires the hotel to soon have the marketing policy adjustment in order to comply with the requirements of the market in the near future. Nh? ng v? n  d? du? c nghien c? u va trinh bay trong d? tai nghien c? u nay s? khong danh gia h? t t? t c? nh? ng n? l? marketing ma khach s? n dang theo du? i, cung nhu nh? ng gi? i phap d ? xu? t khong ph? i la hoan toan uThese problems are studied and presented in this research project will evaluate all the marketing efforts being pursued by the hotel, as well as proposed solutions are not entirely advantages Vietnamese. These elements are the marketing-mix tools, the specific objectives to help the hotel achieve common goals and strategic long-term, thereby, creating sustainable growth in the market. OUTLINE OF CONTENT 1. Introduction 2. Methods 3. Research Limitations 4. Description of the hotel 5. Customer satisfaction 6. Research Results 7. Conclusion and Recommendation

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Critical Analysis of The Iceman Cometh Essay

It is a basic law of storytelling that in order for an author to capture and maintain the reader’s interest, the author must create â€Å"realistic† characters, ones that are relatable, genuine, and plainly likeable. In the works of Eugene O’Neill, he takes that rule of realistic character development and proceeds to warp and twist it into a beautifully mangled paradigm of raw humanity and pessimism. He formulates characters that are utter derelicts to society, each one desperately hanging on to their hopeless dreams, each one hauntingly familiar to us. O’Neill, one of the more well-known twentieth century American playwrights, borrows from the thinking of Nietzsche to strip away the fluff of human personality, exposing the basic, eternally somber inner workings of the human psyche. In his plays, such as The Ice Man Cometh, O’Neill consistently portrays a classic nihilistic theme that there is no God, one of the first in his field to toy with the idea. He preaches that there is no great reward in life, that even after years, perhaps even a lifetime of suffering, there is no pay off – the only thing you get is the relief that is death. O’Neill’s The Ice Man Cometh, a play brought to Broadway which went on to celebrated success, is the story of, more or less, drunken slobs. The play’s epicenter is a bar/boarding house where a group of drunken derelicts seem to live. The hotel being named after the owner, Harry Hope, is laughably ironic, seeing as how most all of the bar flies have little or no hope left in there lives, yet they all dream of their tomorrows – paying their bills tomorrow, getting their job back tomorrow, making a fresh start tomorrow. The plot revolves around the many bar attendees, but sixty year old Larry Slade plays the role of the bitter objective commentator, a person who has decidedly removed himself from the anarchist group called â€Å"The Movement† and the responsibilities of mainstream life. He and his companions eagerly await the arrival of their salesman friend Hickey, who comes down twice a year to waste all off his money on buying everyone drinks. However before Hickey arrives, Don Parrit, the son of an ex-lover of Larry’s, a woman who was also in the Movement, comes to Larry seeking help. Apparently the Movement has nearly collapsed on account of someone selling the group out, resulting in the arrest of Parrit’s mother, Rosa. Shortly afterwards, Hickey arrives, which would usually put the men in good spirits. Hickey has changed though, and instead of being his usual enjoyable self, his is sullen and depressed, evangelically preaching to the others that they should renounce their â€Å"pipe dreams† as he has; that it is only when this is done can one truly obtain free will, a doctrine that Larry has already put into effect. That night, they celebrate Harry’s birthday, but everyone has become irritable and quarrelsome, what with Hickey’s grouchiness and unwillingness to drink. The story reaches its climax when Hickey announces the death of his wife, and all the character become infuriated with Hickey for reminding them of their pathetic grasp on pipe dreams, prompting them all to finally get moving towards turning those pipe dreams into realities. However their dreams fall apart the second they start, and they all return to the bar in the end; however their shreds of hope have been dashed by their confrontations with reality, and they all resent Hickey. Hickey then tells them that he actually killed his wife out of sheer hatred for constant forgiveness, and Parrit admits that he sold out his mother and the movement for similar reasons. Overcome with guilt, Parrit asks Larry to sentence his punishment, while Harry turns himself into the police, believing himself to be insane. Larry finally confronts his own fear of death by ordering Parrit’s suicide, in the end leaving Larry with his own desire for death. The characters in The Ice Man Cometh are essentially sad and entirely pathetic; the dynamics that exist between them seem so raw and primitive that it borders on the unreal. Although containing a well-sized cast, the play mainly focuses on the interactions between Larry, Parrit and Hickey (Bogard 51). From the beginning of the play, we are introduced to Larry as a man removed from society, one who cares not to create any more bonds or relationships with the world and its inhabitants. Larry tells us this himself when he says: †¦ So I said to the world, God bless all here, and may the best man win nd die of gluttony! And I took a seat in the grandstand of philosophical detachment to fall asleep observing the cannibals do their death dance. (O’Neill: Plays of Our time 12) Larry attempts to play the part of the coolly detached â€Å"Ubermensch† or â€Å"Overman† as proposed by Nietzsche. Nietzsche describes the Ubermensch as, â€Å"the meaning of the earth. Let your will say: the overman shall be the meaning of the earth! I beseech you, my brothers, remain faithful to the earth, and do not believe those who speak to you of otherworldly hopes! (â€Å"Towards the Ubermensch†). What Nietzsche basically illustrates is a man who lives in reality, and does not expect anything more from it; he does not expect an afterlife, nor any reward for his life – he is a man living by his own morals, not buying into â€Å"slave morality†, the basic set of ethics impressed upon society (Wilcox 13). However it should be noted that Larry attempts to play this role; he successfully does so, up until Don Parrit enters his life and tugs at the few heartstrings Larry has left. In the past, Larry was a father figure to Parrit, and now Parrit has come back trying to fill that paternal void in his life. After symbolically killing his mother by selling her out to the cops, Parrit yearns to find some semblance of a reliable parent. Although Larry clearly declares his new outlook on life, he is eventually convinced by Hickey to kill that pipe dream of his, his own fear of death, and takes responsibility for Parrit’s betrayal by sentencing him to his suicide. In his line â€Å"Go! Get the hell out of life, God damn you, before I choke it out of you! Go up-! † Larry is in theory sucked back into the real world by acknowledging that bond he shares with Parrit (O’Neill : Plays of Our time 138). Hickey, like Larry, is another example of the influence Nietzsche had on O’Neill. When Hickey finally returns, he preaches to the rest of the men to give up their dreams, and it is only then can one be totally free. This sudden quest to destroy the American dream is similar to Nietzsche’s rejection of the Judeo-Christian faith and it’s ideals of redemption (Orr 91). By refusing the notion of an afterlife, one is truly free in that you realize your actions have no real consequence. John Orr goes as far as to describe Hickey as both a Christ and an Antichrist figure to the barflies. His preaching offers no one salvation because they all end up back at the bar, mentally worse off than before, symbolically dead, but he himself is crucified when he turns himself in to the police. Edmund Wilson said, â€Å"†¦ [Eugene O’Neill], nearly always, with whatever crudeness, is expressing some real experience, some impact directly from life. † (382). And Wilson is right; many, if not all of O’Neill’s plays serve as a personal reflection of his thoughts and experiences in life. In cases like The Ice Man Cometh, Bogard suggests that the characters he writes about mimic the people he encountered while he spent his days in the saloons of New Orleans. As one notices in the early stage directions, the characters are described as specific â€Å"types† of people: Joe Mott being â€Å"mildly negroid in type; Piet Wetjoen â€Å"A Dutch farmer type†; and claiming McGloin has â€Å"the occupation of policeman stamped all over him† (51). There is no doubt these characters were based on people or groups of certain people he has encountered in his life. The motif of alcoholism is obvious in The Ice Man Cometh, and of course, O’Neill had first hand experience with alcohol problems. It was his constant drinking that mollified the shock of learning of his mother’s morphine addiction, and what also got him thrown out of Princeton University. Even O’Neill’s nihilistic rejection of Christianity stems from his early childhood, when he insisted that he no longer attend Catholic school, but instead go to a secular boarding school. Also, the suicide attempt of Jimmy Tomorrow and the successful suicide of Don Parrit are reflective of O’Neill’s own struggle with suicide back in 1912, ironically the same year The Ice Man Cometh takes place. With this knowledge of O’Neill’s troubled and mentally disturbed past, we are able to discern the basic themes of The Ice Man Cometh. However this in itself is no easy task, the play is multi-layered, dealing with themes that involve dreams of death, and the existence of God; however they all stem from a focal point which is the inner turmoil that exists within man. In the beginning of the play, Larry describes Hope’s Hotel to Parrit, which coincidentally enough is a perfect metaphor for the mens’ lives: What is it? It’s the No Chance Saloon. The Bedrock Bar, The End of the Line Cafe, The Bottom of the Sea Rathskellar! Don’t you notice the beautiful calm in the atmosphere? That’s because it’s the last harbor. No one here has to worry about where they’re going next, because there is no farther they can go. It’s a great comfort to them. Although even here they keep up the appearances of life with a few harmless pipe dreams about their yesterdays and tomorrows, as you’ll see for yourself if you’re here long. (O’Neill: Plays of Our Time 19). Larry repeats the idea that the hotel is â€Å"the end of the line†, that inside it’s walls there lies â€Å"no chance†, that it’s â€Å"the last harbor†. And so it is, the hotel symbolically becoming a sort of limbo, a hole in the wall place where the burnouts and ruined lives come to kill some time as they subconsciously wait for their deaths. Even O’Neill describes the hotel in the first few lines of his stage directions as: â€Å"The back room and a section of the bar of Harry Hope’s saloon on an early morning in summer, 1912. The right wall of the back room is a dirty black curtain which separates the bar†¦The back room is crammed with round tables and chairs placed so close together that it is a difficult squeeze to pass between them†¦The walls and ceiling once were white, but it was a long time ago, and they are now so splotched, peeled, stained and dusty that their color can best be described at dirty. (O’Neill: Plays of Our Time 7). The hotel exists as a microcosm removed from society; the cramped back room full of dirty furniture and even dirtier people, representing the grim reality of death that lies in the dark recesses of the inhabitants minds. To end up at this bar is to acknowledge your death. However all the hotel’s inhabitants hold on to their pipe dreams, their last great memories of reality, all making empty promises to get back on their feet. However, they still sit, waiting for the relief of death. Their relief is that they can finally end the suffering of day-to-day existence and leave this earth. Nietzsche pushes the notion that the only world that truly exists is the physical one. There remains no great dramatic ending, no glorious redemption, there is no higher being that any of us must answer to or any grand jury that is weighing our every action, â€Å"the ‘apparent’ world is the only one: the ‘true; world is mere added by a lie† (Wilcox 73). These men finally meet their death-bringer when salesman Theodore Hickman, to them known as Hickey, enters the hotel. Yearly coming by for Harry Hope’s birthday, always a bringer of life and vitality (and especially alcohol), Larry and the others notice a gross change in Hickey. He begins to unnervingly preach the glory of killing your pipe dreams. Hickey convinces the drunkards to forget those great memories of reality, forget those promises to start anew, and accept the fact that they are physically and mentally paralyzed; forever stuck in the limbo of Harry Hope’s hotel until their death (Bogard 54). Travis Bogard best explained it by saying: â€Å"Their dreams hold at least an illusion of life’s essence: movement in purposive action. Action, to be sure, will never be taken, but the dreams reveal a basic human truth: to foster life, man must preserve a minimal dream of movement†¦showing the dreamers that they will never take action†¦brings the peace of death. †

Monday, July 29, 2019

Foundations of Organizational Structure Essay

TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN COLLEGE ABDM2083 ORGANIZATION & HUMAN RESOURCE TUTORIAL 1 General Introduction 1. Ice-breaking session. 2. Self-introduction by tutor and students. 3. Briefing on course requirements. 4. Tutorial expectations and participation. 5. Briefing on Group Report & Oral Presentation (requirements and expectations). 6. Team formation for Group Report. (4 members per group) 7. Tutor assigns question and time for oral presentation & group report ** Oral presentation and group report submission will starts from Week 3 to 5** **Important note** Students are required to sit for one (1) online test on Week 3. Please make sure that you are registered under this course and be able to access to CEL to take the test. TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN COLLEGE ABDM2083 ORGANIZATION & HUMAN RESOURCE TUTORIAL 2 Topic 1 : Foundations of Organizational Structure Part A: Multiple Choice Questions 1) The ________ refers to the number of subordinates that a manager directs. A) span of control B) unity of command C) chain of command D) decentralization principle E) leadership web 2) A task that is subdivided into many separate jobs is considered to have ________. A) a high degree of departmentalization B) a low degree of decentralization C) a high degree of work specialization D) a low degree of structure E) a high degree of matrix structuring 3) Aeronautics Inc., a parts supplier, has departments for government aircraft and contracts, large commercial aircraft clients, and small personal aircraft clients. This is an example of ________ departmentalization. A) product B) function C) geography D) customer E) service 4) Stalsberry Company has employees in personnel, sales, and accounting. This division of an organization into groups according to work functions is an example of ________, the second element of structural organization. A) social clustering B) bureaucracy C) specialization D) centralization E) departmentalization 5) The unbroken line of authority that extends from the top of the organization to the lowest echelon and clarifies who reports to whom is termed ________. A) chain of command B) authority C) span of control. D) unity of command E) web of authority 6) Which one of the following is consistent with a simple structure? A) high centralization B) high horizontal differentiation C) high employee discretion D) standardization E) bureaucracy 7) Which of the following is a drawback of a narrow span of control? It ________. A) reduces effectiveness B) is more efficient C) encourages overly tight supervision and discourages employee autonomy D) empowers employees E) increases participatory decision-making 8) In an organization that has high centralization, ________. A) the corporate headquarters is located centrally to branch offices B) all top level officials are located within the same geographic area C) action can be taken more quickly to solve problems D) new employees have a great deal of legitimate authority E) top managers make all the decisions and lower level managers merely carry out directions TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN COLLEGE ABDM2083 ORGANIZATION & HUMAN RESOURCE TUTORIAL 3 Topic 2 : Organizational Culture Part A: Discussion Question 1) Explain the primary methods of maintaining an organization’s culture. Once a culture is in place, there are practices within the organization that act to maintain it by giving employees a set of similar experiences. Three forces play a particularly important part in sustaining a culture: selection practices, the actions of top management, and socialization methods. a) First, the explicit goal of the selection process is to identify and hire individuals who have the knowledge, skills, and abilities to perform the  jobs within the organization successfully. It would be naive to ignore that the final decision as to who is hired will be significantly influenced by the decision maker’s judgment of how well the candidates will fit into the organization. This attempt to ensure a proper match, whether purposely or inadvertently, results in the hiring of people who have values essentially consistent with those of the organization, or at least a good portion of those values. In addition, the selection process provides information to applicants about the organization.   Candidates learn about the organization and, if they perceive a conflict between their values and those of the organization, they can self-select themselves out of the applicant pool. b) In addition to selection, the actions of top management also have a major impact on the organization’s culture. Through what they say and how they behave, senior executives establish norms that filter down through the organization as to whether risk taking is desirable; how much freedom managers should give their employees; what is appropriate dress; what actions will pay off in terms of pay raises, promotions, and other rewards; and the like. c) Finally, no matter how good a job the organization does in recruiting and selection, new employees are not fully indoctrinated in the organization’s culture. Because they are unfamiliar with the organization’s culture, new employees are potentially likely to disturb the beliefs and customs that are in place. The organization will, therefore, want to help new employees adapt to its culture. This adaptation process is called socialization. This is when the organization seeks to mold the outsider into an employee â€Å"in good standing.† Employees who fail to learn the essential or pivotal role behaviors risk being labeled â€Å"nonconformists† or â€Å"rebels,† which often leads to expulsion. But the organization will be socializing every employee, though maybe not as explicitly, throughout his or her entire career in the organization. This further contributes to sustaining the culture. 2) Explain how an institutionalized culture can be a barrier to diversity. Describe how an organization could utilize the three forces at play in sustaining a culture to help create a diverse workforce. By limiting the range of acceptable values and styles, strong cultures put considerable pressure on employees to conform. In some instances, a strong culture that condones prejudice can even undermine formal corporate diversity policies. Strong cultures can also be liabilities when they support institutional bias or become insensitive to people who are different. Hiring new employees who differ from the majority in race, age, gender, disability, or other characteristics creates a paradox: management wants to demonstrate support for the differences these employees bring to the workplace, but newcomers who wish to fit in must accept the organization’s core cultural values. Because diverse behaviors and unique strengths are likely to diminish as people attempt to assimilate, strong cultures can become liabilities when they effectively eliminate these advantages. The explicit goal of the selection process is to identify and hire individuals with the knowledge, skills, and abilities to perform successfully. Taking diversity into consideration at this phase does not have to be antagonistic to the culture. The final decision, because it’s significantly influenced by the decision maker’s judgment of how well the candidates will fit into the organization, identifies people whose values are essentially consistent with at least a good portion of the organization’s. Looking beyond surface level differences at the selection phase will help create a diverse workforce. Through words and behavior, senior executives establish norms that filter through the organization about, for instance, whether risk taking is desirable, how much freedom managers should give employees, what is appropriate dress, and what actions pay off in terms of pay raises, promotions, and other rewards. Management actions should be inclusive and non-prejudicial to create a diverse and functional culture. During the metamorphosis stage of socialization management should use institutional practices to encourage person–organization fit and high levels of commitment. 3) What are the three stages of socialization through which employees become indoctrinated into an organization’s culture? The three stages of socialization are prearrival, encounter, and metamorphosis. a) The prearrival stage recognizes that each individual arrives with a set of values, attitudes, and expectations. These cover both the work to be done and the organization. b) Upon entry into the organization, the new member enters the encounter stage. Here the individual confronts the possible dichotomy between her expectations and reality. c) Finally, the new member must work out any problems discovered during the encounter stage. This may mean going through changes – hence, this is called the metamorphosis stage. 4) Discuss the difference between strong and weak organizational cultures and discuss the effect that a strong culture can have on an acquisition or merger. Strong cultures have a greater impact on employee behavior and are more directly related to reduced turnover. In a strong culture, the organization’s core values are both intensely held and widely shared. The more members who accept the core values and the greater their commitment to those values is, the stronger the culture is. A strong culture will have a great influence on the behavior of its members because the high degree of sharedness and intensity creates an internal climate of high behavioral control. One specific result of a strong culture should be lower employee turnover. A strong culture demonstrates high agreement among members about what the organization stands for. Such unanimity of purpose builds cohesiveness, loyalty, and organizational commitment. These qualities, in turn, lessen employees’ propensity to leave the organization. In recent years, cultural compatibility has become the primary concern. All things being equal, whether the acquisition actually works seems to have more to do with how well the two organizations’ cultures match up. The primary cause of failure is conflicting organizational cultures, when people simply don’t match up. Therefore, when considering an acquisition or merger, management would need to carefully evaluate the cultures of each organization. TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN COLLEGE ABDM2083 ORGANIZATION & HUMAN RESOURCE TUTORIAL 4 Topic 3: Foundations of Group Behavior & Understanding Work Teams Part A: Discussion Question 1) List and briefly describe the stages in the five-stage model of group  development. The five-stage group development model characterizes groups as proceeding through five distinct stages: forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. a) Forming is characterized by a great deal of uncertainty about the group’s purpose, structure, and leadership. Members are testing the waters to determine what types of behavior are acceptable. b) In the storming stage, members accept the existence of the group, but there is resistance to the constraints that the group imposes on individuality. There is conflict over who will control the group. c) The third stage is one in which close relationships develop and the group demonstrates cohesiveness. There is now a strong sense of group identify and camaraderie. This norming stage is complete when the group structure solidifies and the group has assimilated a common set of expectations of what defines correct member behavior. d) The fourth stage is performing. The structure at this point is fully functional and accepted. Group energy has moved from getting to know and understand each other to performing the task at hand. e) In the adjourning stage, the group prepares for its disbandment. High task performance is no longer the group’s top priority. Instead, attention is directed toward wrapping up activities. 2) Design the most effective team to figure out ways to reduce the number of preparation hours for shipping products overseas for your company. Choose the type of team from one of the four principal team types. Describe your team’s context, composition, and process parameters. Answers will vary. A problem-solving team is probably the best type of team for this task. In a problem-solving team members share ideas or suggest how work processes and methods can be improved. The problem-solving team will offer ideas to management. Together they discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, and the work environment. The team will need information on what products are being shipped and how  long each of them takes, as well as details on the current procedures. Adequate information is essential. A firm goal of reducing the hours spent must be established by a leader. The group should be comprised of workers and management with expertise in the shipping department procedures. The team should have five members, three management and two people from shipping and packaging. The process parameters should be clearly outlined, with goals of exactly how much time needs to be shaved off of packaging processes. 3) Explain the difference between groupthink and group shift. Give an example to support your answer. Groupthink is related to norms. It describes situations in which group pressures for conformity deter the group from critically appraising unusual, minority, or unpopular views. Groupthink is a disease that attacks many groups and can dramatically hinder their performance. Group shift indicates that in discussing a given set of alternatives and arriving at a solution, group members tend to exaggerate the initial positions that they hold. In some situations, caution dominates, and there is a conservative shift. More often, however, the evidence indicates that groups tend toward a risky shift. Students answers may vary. TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN COLLEGE ABDM2083 ORGANIZATION & HUMAN RESOURCE TUTORIAL 5 Topic 4: Motivation Concepts Part A: Discussion Questions 1) Compare and contrast a manager that implements Theory Y and one that adheres to the expectancy theory. How would each choose to motivate their employees? Theory Y managers assume that employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play, and therefore the average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility. Theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. Theory Y managers would contend that ideas such as participative decision making, responsible and challenging jobs, and good group relations are approaches that would maximize an employee’s job  motivation. A Theory Y manager believes that the employee is inherently motivated as long as the conditions respect his intellect and character. A Theory Y manager would work hard to include the employee in decision making concerning his job, to satisfy work environment preferences, and to make sure the work is stimulating. Expectancy theory proposes that employees will be motivated to exert a high level of effort when they believe it will lead to a good performance appraisal; that a good appraisal will lead to organizational rewards such as bonuses, salary increases, or promotions; and that the rewards will satisfy the employees’ personal goals. An expectancy theory manager would focus much more on the reward expectations of the employee, versus the psychologic expectations. It would be important for the manager to understand the personal goals that the employee strives to achieve so that he can be appropriately rewarded and praised. 2) Describe Maslow’s hierarchy of needs including the types of needs and how they become dominant. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs hypothesized that within every human being there exists a hierarchy of five needs. a) The physiological needs include hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, and other bodily needs. b) Safety includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm. c) Social includes affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship. d) Esteem includes internal esteem factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement; and external esteem factors such as status, recognition, and attention. e) Self-actualization is the drive to become what one is capable of becoming; includes growth, achieving one’s potential, and self-fulfillment. As each of these needs becomes substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant. So if you want to motivate someone, according to Maslow, you need to understand what level of the hierarchy that person is currently on and focus on satisfying those needs at or above that level 3) According to Two-Factor Theory, how might a manager motivate employees? According to Herzberg, the factors leading to job satisfaction are separate and distinct from those that lead to job dissatisfaction. Therefore, managers who seek to eliminate factors that can create job dissatisfaction may bring about peace but not necessarily result in motivation. Conditions surrounding the job such as quality of supervision, pay, company policies, physical working conditions, relations with others, and job security were characterized by Herzberg as hygiene factors. When they are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied; neither will they be satisfied. If we want to motivate people on their jobs, Herzberg suggested emphasizing factors associated with the work itself or to outcomes directly derived from it, such as promotional opportunities, opportunities for personal growth, recognition, responsibility, and achievement. These are the characteristics that people find intrinsically rewarding. TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN COLLEGE ABDM2083 ORGANIZATION & HUMAN RESOURCE TUTORIAL 6 Topic 5: Motivation: From Concepts to Applications Part A: Discussion Questions 1) List and describe THREE (3) different variable-pay programs. Be sure to include piece-rate plans, profit-sharing plans, and gainsharing. a) Piece-rate plans. In piece-rate pay plans, workers are paid a fixed sum for each unit of production completed. When an employee gets no base salary and is paid only for what he or she produces, this is a pure piece-rate plan. b) Merit-based pay. Merit-based pay plans also pay for individual performance. However, unlike piece-rate plans, which pay based on objective output, merit-based pay plans are based on performance appraisal ratings. c) Profit-sharing. Profit-sharing plans are organization-wide programs that distribute compensation based on some established formula designed around a company’s profitably. d) Bonuses. Bonuses can be paid exclusively to executives or to all employees. Many companies now routinely reward production employees with bonuses in the thousands of dollars when company profits improve. e) Skill-Based Pay. Skill-based pay (also called competency-based or knowledge-based pay) sets pay levels on the basis of how many skills employees have or how many jobs they can do. f) ESOPs. Employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs) are company-established benefit plans in which employees acquire stock, often at below-market prices, as part of their benefits. g) Gainsharing. Gainsharing is a formula-based group incentive plan. Improvements in group productivity determine the total amount of money that is to be allocated. By focusing on productivity gains rather than profits, gainsharing rewards specific behaviors that are less influenced by external factors. Employees in a gainsharing plan can receive incentive awards even when the organization isn’t profitable. 2) Compare and contrast the benefits of intrinsic rewards such as recognition and extrinsic rewards such as pay as forms of motivation. Organizations are increasingly recognizing that both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards are important. Rewards are intrinsic in the form of employee recognition programs and extrinsic in the form of compensation systems. Intrinsic rewards range from a spontaneous and private thank-you to widely publicized formal programs in which specific types of behavior are encouraged and the procedures for attaining recognition are clearly identified. Pay, an extrinsic reward, is not the primary factor driving job satisfaction, however, it does motivate people, and companies often underestimate its importance in keeping top talent. No matter how much recognition a top performer gets, he will be tempted to leave if the pay scale is much lower than the market and another offer arrives. Recent survey data indicate most employees don’t see a strong connection between pay and performance. Variable pay structures, such as bonuses are often the best production motivators. When pay is tied to performance, the employee’s earnings also recognize contribution rather  than being a form of entitlement. Over time, low performers’ pay stagnates, while high performers enjoy pay increases commensurate with their contributions. An obvious advantage of intrinsic rewards like recognition programs is that they are inexpensive since praise is free. However, they are highly susceptible to political manipulation by management. When applied to jobs for which performance factors are relatively objective, such as sales, recognition programs are likely to be perceived by employees as fair. However, in most jobs, the criteria for good performance aren’t self evident, which allows managers to manipulate the system and recognize their favorites. Abuse can undermine the value of recognition programs and demoralize employees. Research suggests financial incentives may be more motivating in the short term, but in the long run intrinsic incentives will retain good employees if the extrinsic incentives are competitive. 3) What is employee involvement and why is it important. Give two examples. Employee involvement is defined as a participative process that uses the entire capacity of employees and is designed to encourage increased commitment to the organization’s success. The underlying logic is that by involving workers in those decisions that affect them and by increasing their autonomy and control over their work lives, employees will become more motivated, more committed to the organization, more productive, and more satisfied with their jobs. Examples of employee involvement include a) Participative management. Participative management programs use joint decision making. Subordinates actually share a significant degree of decision-making power with their immediate superiors. b) Representative participation. Representative participation refers to worker representation by a small group of employees who actually participate on the board. The goal is to redistribute power within an organization, putting labor on a more equal footing with the interests of management and stockholders. TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN COLLEGE ABDM2083 ORGANIZATION & HUMAN RESOURCE TUTORIAL 7 Topic 6: What do Managers Do & Leadership Part A: Multiple Choice Questions 1) Which of the following is most likely to be a belief held by a successful manager? A) Technical knowledge is all that is needed for success. B) It is not essential to have sound interpersonal skills. C) Technical skills are necessary, but insufficient alone for success. D) Effectiveness is not impacted by human behavior. E) Technical skills do not influence efficiency. 2) Which of a manager’s primary functions requires the manager to define an organization’s goals, establish an overall strategy for achieving these goals and develop a comprehensive hierarchy of plans to integrate and coordinate activities? A) controlling B) planning C) staffing D) coordinating E) leading 3) As a manager, one of Joe’s duties is to present awards to outstanding employees within his department. Which Mintzberg managerial role is Joe acting in when he does this? A) leadership role B) liaison role C) monitor role D) figurehead role E) spokesperson role 4) Jill is valued by her colleagues for her ability to perform effective break-even analysis on upcoming ventures. In this case, her colleagues value her for competencies that fall within which essential management skills categories? A) technical B) communication C) human D) conceptual E) education 5) Leadership is best defined as ________. A) the ability to influence a group in goal achievement B) keeping order and consistency in the midst of change C) implementing the vision and strategy provided by management D) coordinating and staffing the organization and handling day-to-day problems E) not a relevant variable in modern organizations 6) The two dimensions of leadership behavior identified in the University of Michigan studies are ________. A) coercion and motivation B) emotional and rational C) employee-oriented and production-oriented D) initiating structure and consideration E) initiation and completion Part B: Discussion Questions 1) Describe the three essential management skills that differentiate effective managers from ineffective ones. Provide a workplace example of how these skills could be used when dealing with the challenge of a workplace recession. The three essential management skills identified by researchers are technical, human, and conceptual. Technical skills are defined by the ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise. Human skills are defined by the ability to work with, understand, and motivate other people. Finally, conceptual skills are defined by the ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations. In a time of recession human skills are essential to motivate fearful employees and to create a positive work environment. They would also be necessary in the event of workplace staff reduction. Technical skills could be applied in the area of expertise to raise production and, combined with conceptual skills, can be used to look for small market niches and ways to analyze the industry to continue to make a profit until times are better. TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN COLLEGE ABDM2083 ORGANIZATION & HUMAN RESOURCE TUTORIAL 8 Topic 7: Leadership Part A: Multiple Choice Questions 1) Hersey and Blanchard developed which of the following? A) situational leadership theory B) cognitive resource theory C) managerial grid model D) path-goal theory E) cognitive orientation model 2) Hersey and Blanchard’s leadership theory differs from other leadership theories primarily because it ________. A) explores the role of the expectations of the leader for the follower B) focuses on the followers C) holds that leadership style should be dependent on the situation D) is normative E) deals strictly and exclusively with contingencies 3) What is the main principle of path-goal theory? A) Successful leadership is achieved by selecting the right leadership style. B) Stress is a form of situational unfavorableness and a leader’s reaction to it depends on his or her intelligence and experience. C) Effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leader’s style and the degree to which the situation gives control to the leader. D) Leaders establish a special relationship with a small group of their followers because of time pressures. E) The leader is responsible for providing followers with the information, support, or other resources necessary for them to do their jobs. 4) Which of the following is not a key characteristic of a charismatic leader? A) sensitivity to follower needs B) unconventional behavior C) vision and articulation D) task orientation E) willingness to take risks 5) Researchers are conducting a study of a company called Acme Corp, which they believe to be led by a transformational leader. Which of the following, if true, would most support the conclusion that Acme’s leader is a transformational leader? A) Acme’s top managers often conflict over defining the organization’s goals. B) Acme’s goals tend to be very ambitious and to hold personal value for employees. C) Creativity is discouraged among Acme employees. D) Acme managers are cautious and rarely take risks. E) Acme’s compensation plans are designed to reward short-term results. 6) Leaders who clarify role and task requirements to accomplish established goals exhibit a _________ style of leadership. A) transformational B) transactional C) charismatic D) self-initiating E) situational 7) Richard is a transactional leader who has just assigned a series of tasks to a project team. Which of the following is most likely to be true about the team’s performance under Richard’s guidance? A) They will set new standards of productivity for the department, exceeding Richard’s expectations. B) They will meet the goals set for them but are unlikely to go beyond those goals. C) They will tend to be unclear about the roles assigned to each team member. D) They will be highly motivated by what they view as Richard’s heroic or extraordinary qualities. E) They will tend to put their individual self-interest above the interests of the company. Part B: Discussion Questions 1)Compare and contrast Hersey and Blanchard’s situational leadership theory with House’s path-goal theory. Hersey and Blanchard’s situation leadership theory is a contingency theory  that focuses on the followers. Successful leadership is achieved by selecting the right leadership style, which Hersey and Blanchard argue is contingent on the level of the followers’ readiness. The emphasis on the followers in leadership effectiveness reflects the reality that it is the followers who accept or reject the leaders. The term readiness refers to the extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task. SLT says if a follower is unable and unwilling to do a task, the leader needs to give clear and specific directions; if followers are unable and willing, the leader needs to display high task orientation to compensate for the followers’ lack of ability and high relationship orientation to get the follower to â€Å"buy into† the leader’s desires; if followers are able and unwilling, the leader needs to use a supportive and partic ipative style; and if the employee is both able and willing, the leader doesn’t need to do much. Path-goal theory was developed by Robert House. The essence of the theory is that it’s the leader’s job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide the necessary direction and/or support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the group or organization. The term path-goal is derived from the belief that effective leaders clarify the path to help their followers get from where they are to the   achievement of their work goals and make the journey along the path easier by reducing roadblocks. House identified four leadership behaviors. The directive leader lets followers know what is expected of them, schedules work to be done, and gives specific guidance as to how to accomplish tasks. The supportive leader is friendly and shows concern for the needs of followers. The participative leader consults with followers and uses their suggestions before making a decision. The achievement-oriented leader sets challenging goals and expects followers to perform at their highest level. House assumes that leaders are flexible and that the same leader can display any or all of these behaviors depending on the situation. TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN COLLEGE ABDM2083 ORGANIZATION & HUMAN RESOURCE TUTORIAL 9 Topic 8: Communication Part A: Multiple Choice Questions 1) Communication serves all of the following functions within a group or organization except ________. A) motivation B) planning C) emotional expression D) control E) conveying information 2) Alejandro is annoyed that the new recruit, Ben, is working faster than anyone else in the group, making the rest of the group look bad. In the company cafeteria Alejandro teases Ben and calls him the ‘super recruit’ and imitates his style of working so rapidly. Alejandro wants to intimidate Ben so that he will work slower. Which function of communication is Alejandro using by making fun of Ben? A) motivation B) control C) expression D) information E) formal 3) Helena and Laura were talking on the phone. Laura’s two year old son fell and started crying and Laura could no longer hear what Helena said. This is an example of ________. A) transmitting B) decoding C) noise D) understanding E) analysis 4) The communication used by managers to provide job instructions is ________ communication. A) downward B) lateral C) formal D) directional E) diagonal Part B: Discussion Questions 1)Describe the communication process. Include the communication process model and explain the eight parts of this model. Before communication can take place, a purpose, expressed as a message to be conveyed, is needed. It passes between a sender and a receiver. The message is encoded (converted to a symbolic form) and passed by way of some medium (channel) to the receiver, who retranslates (decodes) the message initiated by the sender. The result is a transfer of meaning from one person to another. The key parts of the communication process are 1) the sender 2) encoding 3) the message 4) the channel 5) decoding 6) the receiver 7) noise 8) feedback The source initiates a message by encoding a thought. The message is the actual physical product from the source encoding. The channel is the medium through which the message travels. The receiver is the object to whom the message is directed. The symbols must be translated into a form that can be understood by the receiver. This is the decoding. Noise represents communication barriers that distort the clarity of the message. The final link is a feedback loop. 2) Explain how the grapevine functions and why it exists in organizational communication. Describe the general direction of communication and the form of communication most commonly used in the grapevine. What can a manager do to limit the negative effects of the grapevine? The informal communication system is the grapevine. While it is informal it is still an important source of information. A survey found that 75 percent of employees hear about matters first through rumors on the grapevine. The grapevine has three main characteristics. First, it is not controlled by management. Second, most employees perceive it as more believable and reliable than formal communiquà ©s issued by top management. Finally, it is largely used to serve the interests of the people within it. Rumors emerge as a response to situations that are important to us, when there is ambiguity, and under conditions that arouse anxiety. The fact that work situations frequently contain these three elements explains why rumors flourish in organizations. The secrecy and competition that typically prevail in large organizations, encourage and sustain rumors on the grapevine. A rumor will persist either until the wants and expectations creating the uncertainty are fulfilled or the anxiety has been reduced. The grapevine generally follows lateral communication in which persons from the same hierarchical levels begin to relay messages. Very rarely does management participate in the grapevine. In fact, one study reported that management only relayed messages to the grapevine ten percent of the time. Generally oral communication is used to relay grapevine information, although written e-mail can be used as well, but is considered less safe for accountability reasons. Managers can not entirely eliminate rumors. What they should do is minimize the negative consequences of rumors by limiting their range and impact. The best way to reduce the negative consequences of rumors is to: 1) Provide information; 2) Explain actions and decisions that may appear inconsistent, unfair, or secretive; 3) Refrain from shooting the messenger; and 4) Maintain open communication channels. TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN COLLEGE ABDM2083 ORGANIZATION & HUMAN RESOURCE TUTORIAL 10 Topic 9: Conflict Management Part A: Multiple Choice Questions 1) The traditional view of conflict is the belief that conflict is ________. A) harmful B) natural C) necessary D) situationally-dependent E) neutral 2) Which of the following is not a cause of conflict, according to the traditionalist view? A) general poor communication between people B) lack of openness in the organization C) trust between people in the organization D) management failure to be responsive to employee needs E) management failure to be responsive to employee aspirations 3) The ________ view of conflict argues that conflict is necessary for a group to perform effectively. A) human relations B) interactionist C) traditional D) functional E) reactive 4) ________ conflicts are almost always dysfunctional. A) Task B) Job C) Relationship D) Process E) Functional 5) The first stage of the conflict process is termed ________. A) cognition and personalization B) behavioral manifestation C) potential opposition or incompatibility D) intention E) habituation 6) High job specialization can lead to ________ conflict. A) communication B) structural C) personal-variable D) job-related E) team 7) In which stage are conflict issues defined? A) potential opposition B) cognition and personalization C) intuitions D) behavior E) reaction and transference 8) The conflict-handling intention of collaborating is ________. A) assertive and uncooperative B) assertive and cooperative C) unassertive and uncooperative D) unassertive and cooperative E) affective and reflective 9) Angelina feels that her cubicle neighbor talks too loudly on the phone, but in other ways she is a great neighbor. Angelina gets annoyed every time her neighbor’s phone rings, but she has decided it’s simply not worth the trouble to talk to her neighbor. Angelina’s conflict intention is called ________. A) competing B) avoiding C) accommodating D) compromising E) collaborating 10) Which of the following is not a conflict-resolution technique? A) creating superordinate goals B) appointing a devil’s advocate C) avoiding the conflict D) exercising authoritative command E) generating additional resources 11) Stage II of the conflict process deals with conflict being ________. A) perceived and felt B) apparent and experienced C) expressed and perceived D) overt and covert E) internalized 12) Irma does not like a few of the standard operating procedures adapted for the new project. However, she discussed the items with the team and told them that she realized she was in the minority and that she would adapt the new procedures to maintain smooth operations within the team. This type of intention is called ________. A) sacrificing B) accommodating C) collaborating D) compromising E) competing TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN COLLEGE ABDM2083 ORGANIZATION & HUMAN RESOURCE TUTORIAL 11 Topic 10: Power and Politics Part A: Multiple Choice Questions 1) Power can be defined as ________. A) the ability to influence the behavior of others B) the actualization of the dependency of others C) congruence between the goals of the leader and those being led D) downward influence on one’s followers E) upward influence on one’s leaders 2) One reacts to ________ power out of fear of the negative ramifications that might result if one fails to comply. A) legitimate B) coercive C) punitive D) referent E) abusive 3) The power that the College Dean has been granted by the University over the faculty is termed ________ power. A) academic B) positional C) legitimate D) organizational E) balanced 4) Power tactics can be defined as ________. A) the only legitimate sources of power B) techniques for translating power bases into specific action C) strategies for gathering and maintain support D) organizational structural characteristics E) approaches for winning arguments 5) Vivian has not been handling one portion of her duties in a satisfactory manner. As a result, her manager threatens to withhold her promotion. Which power tactic is being used? A) exchange B) ingratiation C) pressure D) personal appeals E) inspirational appeals Part B: Discussion Questions 1) Contrast leadership and power. Power does not require goal compatibility, merely dependence. Leadership, on the other hand, requires some congruence between the goals of the leader and those being led. A second difference relates to the direction of influence. Leadership focuses on the downward influence on one’s followers. It minimizes the importance of lateral and upward influence patterns. Power does not. Still another difference deals with research emphasis. Leadership research, for the most part, emphasizes style. It seeks answers to such questions as: How supportive should a leader be? How much decision making should be shared with followers? The research on power encompasses a broader area and focus on tactics for gaining compliance. Power can be used by groups as well as by individuals to control other individuals or groups. 2) List and discuss the bases of personal power. Personal power comes from an individual’s unique characteristics. Two bases of personal power are expertise, the respect and admiration of others. a) Expert power is influence wielded as a result of expertise, special skill, or knowledge. Expertise has become one of the most powerful sources of influence as the world has become more technologically oriented. b) Referent power is based on identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits. If I like, respect, and admire you, you can exercise power over me because I want to please you. 3) Distinguish between legitimate political behavior and illegitimate political behavior. Legitimate political behavior refers to normal everyday politics – complaining to your supervisor, bypassing the chain of command, forming coalitions, obstructing organizational policies or decisions through inaction or excessive adherence to rules, and developing contacts outside the organization through one’s professional activities. On the other hand, there are also illegitimate political behaviors that violate the implied rules of the game. Those who pursue such extreme activities are often described as individuals who â€Å"play hardball.† Illegitimate activities include sabotage, whistleblowing, and symbolic protests such as wearing unorthodox dress or protest buttons, and groups of employees simultaneously calling in sick. TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN COLLEGE ABDM2083 ORGANIZATION & HUMAN RESOURCE TUTORIAL 12 Topic 11: Human Resource Policies and Practices (Human Resource Planning& Forecasting, Recruitment) Part A: Discussion Questions 1) Define human resource planning. Describe the TWO (2) components in human resource planning. Human resource planning is the systematic process of matching the internal and external supply of people with job openings anticipated in the organization over a specific period of time. Human resource planning has 2 components: requirements and availability. A requirements forecast involves determining the number, skill, and location of employees the organization will need at future dates in order to meet its goals. The determination of whether the firm will be able to secure employees with the necessary skills, and from what sources, is called an availability forecast. 2) Describe human resource databases and how databases can assist in matching internal employees to positions. A human resource database contains employee information that permits management to make HR decisions. Information that might appear in such databases, includes, but is not limited to, the following: work history and experience, specific skills and knowledge, licenses or certifications held, organizational training completed, educational background, previous performance appraisal evaluations, assessment of strengths and weaknesses, development needs, promotion potential at present, and with further development, current job performance, field of specialization, job preferences, geographic preferences, career goals and aspirations, anticipated retirement date, and personal history, including psychological assessments. Databases are being used by organizations to enable human resources to match people with positions. 3) List TWO (2) methods are available to firms when either a shortage or surplus of workers is forecasted? Firms faced with a shortage of workers may use: 1) 2) 3) 4) innovative recruiting, compensation incentives, and training programs to fill positions. Lowering of employment standards Firms faced with a surplus of workers may use: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) layoffs,  restricted hours,  hiring freezes may be necessary, and  encourage early retirement and  the use of vacation time. TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN COLLEGE ABDM2083 ORGANIZATION & HUMAN RESOURCE TUTORIAL 13 Topic 12: Human Resource Policies and Practices (Selection) Part A: Multiple Choice Questions 1) Which of the following is the most common method of initial selection? A) written tests B) background check C) performance test D) application form E) work-sample test 2) More than ________ percent of employers conduct some type of background check on potential employees during some point in the hiring process, usually either in the initial phase or the contingent phase. A) 25 B) 50 C) 65 D) 80 E) 95 3) The best way for an employer to find out if a potential employee can do a job is by ________. A) using the interview process B) using a written test C) having them spend a day in the office D) administering an IQ test E) using a performance simulation test 4) Work sample tests are widely used in hiring ________. A) unskilled labor B) skilled workers C) professional workers D) managers E) knowledge workers 5) The results of which of the following tend to have a disproportionate amount of influence on employee selection decisions? A) interviews B) written tests C) performance simulation tests D) work sampling methods E) personality tests 6) The behavioral structured interview is built on the assumption that ________. A) past behavior is the best predictor of future behavior B) technical knowledge and skills are the best predictor of job performance C) personality is the best predictor of job performance D) personality and mood are highly correlated E) technical knowledge and mood are highly correlated Part B: TRUE /FALSE Questions 1) As a selection device, written tests have decreased in usage during the past 20 years. (TRUE /FALSE) 2) A test that measures factors such as dependability, carefulness, responsibility, and honesty is referred to as a performance factor test. (TRUE /FALSE) 3) Work samples yield validities almost consistently superior to written aptitude tests. (TRUE /FALSE) 4) In assessment centers, job candidates are evaluated as they go through several days of exercises that simulate real problems they would confront on the job. (TRUE /FALSE) TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN COLLEGE ABDM2083 ORGANIZATION & HUMAN RESOURCE TUTORIAL 14 Topic 13 & 14: Human Resource Policies and Practices (Performance Evaluation) Part A: Multiple Choice Questions 1) Performance evaluations today are generally based on which three types of behavior? A) task performance, productivity, tenure B) productivity, efficiency, absenteeism C) task performance, citizenship, counterproductivity D) citizenship, counterproductivity, personality E) leadership, training, efficiency 2) Performance evaluations are used as a mechanism for all of the following except ________. A) monitoring the success of marketing strategies B) determining promotions C) pinpointing employees skills D) identifying training and development needs E) providing feedback to employees 3) Which of the following is not a weakness of the 360-degree evaluation system? A) artificially inflated feedback from peers B) insufficient training for performance evaluators C) discrepancies between evaluating groups D) provides a wide performance perspective E) difficulties in reconciling differing evaluations 4) Performance evaluations are used to ________. A) improve group cohesiveness B) define departmental structure C) help management make HR decisions D) identify how jobs are completed E) decrease conformity within organizations 5) Which of the following is the least predictive set of criteria used to evaluate employees? A) traits B) task outcomes C) behaviors D) personality E) mood Part B: Discussion Questions 1) What are the three most popular sets of criteria for evaluating employee performance? The three most popular sets of criteria for evaluating employee performance are individual task outcomes, behaviors, and traits. a) If ends count, rather than means, then management should evaluate an employee’s task outcomes. In many cases, it’s difficult to identify specific outcomes that can be directly attributable to an employee’s actions. b) It’s not unusual for management to evaluate the employee’s behavior. c) The weakest set of criteria, yet one that is widely used by organizations is individual traits. They are weaker because they are farthest removed from the actual performance of the job itself. 2) Who should perform employee evaluations? With many of today’s organizations using self-managed teams, telecommuting, and other organizing devices that distance bosses from their employees, an employee’s immediate superior may not be the most reliable judge of that employee’s performance. Thus, in more and more cases, peers and even subordinates are being asked to participate in the performance evaluation process. Also, increasingly, employees are participating in their own performance evaluation. In most situations, in fact, it is highly advisable to use multiple sources of ratings. Any individual performance rating may say as much about the rater as about the person being evaluated. By averaging across raters, we can obtain a more reliable, unbiased, and accurate performance evaluation.

The Goblin shark , the retractable jaw, shape and colour of body as Research Paper

The Goblin shark , the retractable jaw, shape and colour of body as well as the electro-sensitive organs for finding prey - Research Paper Example Sharks are mostly found in tropical to warm-temperate waters, and can live in depths as deep as 2000 meters. The most common shape that is associated with sharks is the fusiform shape, such as the one seen in the Great White Shark. However, in reality sharks have various shapes and sizes to suit their prey and environment. The most well-known example of these is the hammerhead shark, from the family Sphyrnidae, which have a flattened structure on their heads that also houses the eyes, making it look like a hammer (Compagno, 1990). There are also other well-known sharks that seem to resemble rays due to their flat bodies, or those that resemble whales with regards to their body and mouth shapes. In this paper, a poorly-known but also one of the most unusual-looking species of sharks, the goblin shark would be discussed as to how its adaptations have lead to its unique body shape, skin color, and jaws. Goblin Shark Descriptions and Physiological Adaptations The goblin shark, (Mitsukuri na owstoni Jordan, 1898) is a deep-dwelling shark that is established as one of the sole extant species of its family, Mitsukurinidae, order Lamniformes, with the rest to be only known from collected fossils (Parsons, Ingram, & Harvard, 2002). It is a poorly- known, elusive deepwater fish, with only around 33 established literatures about its studies, 22 of those are from the vicinity of the Izu Islands, and the rest are scattered across the globe (Duffy, 1997). Thus, until now it is a species that is not well-understood, including its other feeding habits, growth and development patterns, as well as its reproductive cycle. What also makes it harder to study is that once caught off-shore and brought to aquariums, it dies within a span of a week (Compagno, 2000 as cited in Grijalba-Bendeck & Acevedo, 2009; Yano, Miya, Aizawa, & Noichi, 2007). The holotype of the species was captured in 1898 somewhere in the Bay of Tokyo, and most of the other early specimens that were subsequently ca ught were also found near that part of Japan (Jordan, 1898 as cited in Bean, 1905; Dean, 1903; Duffy, 1997; Hussakof, 1909; Parsons, Ingram, & Harvard, 2002). The shark seems to be a well-known species along the coasts of Izu, where the locals call it Tengu-zame, translated as elfin or goblin shark (Bean, 1905). Its large liver is used as an oil source, and the flesh is used as fertilizer. While being seen as rare in most parts of the world, the species seems to be a common bycatch in long line and bottom trawling nets, which suggests that it prefers to live near the meso-pelagic to near-benthic zones (Duffy, 1997; Grijalba-Bendeck & Acevedo, 2009). Other areas where the species are also seen and collected are in Australia, the Indian Ocean, South Africa, French Guiana, Europe, the Gulf of Mexico, and New Zealand (Duffy, 1997; Parsons, Ingram, & Harvard, 2002). The goblin shark has a flat, elongated blade-like snout called the rostrum, small eyes, flabby body, slender teeth and a ca udal fin that has no ventral lobe and resembles that of the thresher shark (Yano, Miya, Aizawa, & Noichi, 2007). This rostral appendage is shorter in adult sharks as compared to younger ones (Bean, 1905; Duffy, 1997; Grija

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Which aspects of the Hungarian 1956 revolution did the Soviet Essay

Which aspects of the Hungarian 1956 revolution did the Soviet leadership find most objectionable - Essay Example The revolution appeared as a consequence of hardened relationship between Hungary and the Soviet Union during 1950s, which led the masses of Hungary to demonstrate and protest against the imperial ambitions of the USSR. Soviet Union had occupied the territory of Hungary along with other East European countries after the World War II. Borhi says that â€Å"†¦the Soviet Union regarded Hungary as a prize of the Soviet victory in the World War II†1 Ever since then, Hungary constituted an important part of Soviet Union’s strategic aims in the region as well as its national interest. The revolution which started in October 1956 left the Soviet Union into the dilemma concerning the future of Hungary and the USSR political and economic relationship. Stykalin points out that â€Å"the Hungarian crisis of 1956 had confronted Moscow with a hard choice between the use of military or political instruments in its resolution†¦Ã¢â‚¬  2 Because of the benefits that the Sovie t Union was reaping out of its relationship with Hungary, it became imperative for it to resolve the issue using political and military means. The Hungarian revolution appeared to be objectionable for the Soviet Union in several respects viz. political, economic, geopolitical and imperial. The fact that Hungary was a sign of Soviet Union’s victory in the World War II and its hegemony in world politics, loosing Hungary could have signified the declining power of the USSR. Boyle says that â€Å"†¦if the Soviets showed weakness in Hungary†¦, it would make the Soviet Union seem very weak and would encourage the west to take further bold and aggressive steps†3 The geopolitical goals and fear of oppression from the Western countries, in particular, the United States and Britain, turned out to be the major causes of Soviet Union’s decision to invade Hungary and suppress the revolution through military action. Furthermore, Soviet Union

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Managerial control case study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Managerial control case study - Essay Example The specific sector of the PC industry analyzed relates to the product lines offered by Apple Inc. in this industry, and thus includes Desktops and Notebooks together with allied peripherals and Software services. A schematic diagram of the framework used is shown in Appendix-A. One of the most important forces that govern the strategy adopted by a firm within any industry relates to the threat of new entrants. The PC industry is a high-technology industry characterized by constant innovation and technology obsolescence. Hence the most significant threat from the point of view of entry barriers figures in the form of high capital requirements, primarily for investment in research and development for coming up with innovative products in line with the dynamically changing requirements of the marketplace. This is therefore a major deterrent for new entrants. Secondly, since the industry has been growing very rapidly with large demand volumes in the global market, the economies of scale enjoyed by the established players cannot be matched by the new entrants and thus, this is another significant deterrent to new entrants. All other factors under Entry barriers are favorable to new entrants desirous of entering this industry. The level of product differentiation in this industry is not very high, with only a few innovative features offered by different competitors making for some minimal differentiation. Similarly the switching cost to buyers is not very high in the industry as a whole, considering substantial standardization. Although Apple Computers has been known for closely guarding the secrets of its proprietary technology so far, now with the alliance with Microsoft and availability of Windows 98 for Mac users since 1998, the switching cost for Mac users trying to switch to Wintel platforms has also been low. The distribution channels again, are no longer brand channels. Thus on the whole most of these

Friday, July 26, 2019

Near Field Communication (NFC) for WXPO Commerce Bank Essay

Near Field Communication (NFC) for WXPO Commerce Bank - Essay Example This is the reason for focusing mobile based services, as they are assumed to be an attractive and profitable business. However, there are many domains that can be categorized, one of them is called a mobile payment system. Researchers are continuously working to enhance mobile experience, consequently adding more services in to an affordable handheld device that can be convenient and cost efficient for both business and consumers. Previously, many mobile embedded services are launched. For instance, General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), Skype equipped with Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), Bluetooth communication radio, Infrared communication, Built-in Modems, browsers, online access to bank accounts via Internet etc. This shows that the researchers are constantly working to provide a one-time solution for the customers. For instance, a hand held device will become multipurpose device that may also eliminate security issues, as a single device is easy to manage. In the same contex t, mobile payment methods are in reach, as new field communication (NFC) is embedded in many mobile chipsets around the globe (Ondrus, Pigneur 2009). This technology will revolutionize the way of utilizing services that are provided on the cell phone. Consumers can use their cell phone for mobile payments, ticketing and bus fares etc. moreover, NFC also facilitate cell phones for device to device communication, retrieving signals from other chipsets and sensors. For instance, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and card emulations (Ondrus, Pigneur 2009). Overall, NFC is considered to be an efficient communicator for proximity interactions between any two or more devices. Likewise, NFC comprises of contactless smartcard and the cell phone. One significant advantage of using a contactless smartcard from the traditional smart cards made of plastic embedded with a magnetic strip or security chip is that the card reader becomes faulty. The reason for becoming faulty is the dust and gre ase that can degrade the capability of the reader. Moreover, cost is the second factor i.e. there is no requirement to produce a physical smart card. Furthermore, the contactless smart card is more convenient, as it travels with the consumer due to its integration in the cell phone. As NFC uses a very short range of communication i.e. approx. 1.5 inches, it is safe and secure for conducting an online transaction with such a small distance. No one can disrupt of hack in between the two communication nodes i.e. the contactless smartcard and the responder. Moreover, an organization named as Molo Rewards has recently introduced a program that is utilizing NFC technology. Consumers can download different coupons by swiping their cell phones at the point of purchase (†¦, Early days but wallet-less payments are the future  « As I learn 2011). Moreover, NFC supported phones are now widely available in many countries; organization has started to integrate RFID tags on the back cover o r casing of the cell phone (†¦, Early days but wallet-less payments are the future  « As I learn 2011). Furthermore, organization has mentioned these lines on their website â€Å"Want to send a coupon to a consumer who purchased a box of cereal on the 21st of December at 11am EST. MoLo Rewards can provide you with the

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Women religion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Women religion - Essay Example This paper will encompass this aspect with regard to the work done by some of the brave women who stood up for this right and provided an insight in to this matter. During the Puritan Age, there was a religious belief that the sacred text of Bible could only be understood by the holders of the local ministries. It was further believed that only they possessed the right to explain the religious text to others as they were the only ones who interpret the true meaning of the Holy Book. The ministers were all men and hence only they had this ultimate right which led them to manipulate religious thoughts according to their ways. They suppressed women by presenting their thoughts that females did not have the capability of understanding religion and that females were subordinate to them. Anne Hutchinson was a brave lady who stood up against these barriers in this period of ignorance and started preaching religion with her own viewpoint. Anne Hutchinson stood for the fact that a person had the capability of linking directly to God and they were not supposed to depend upon others for explaining religion to them. To support this she claimed, " that god had spoken to her directly and not through the intermediary of properly appointed (and male) minister"1. She was of the belief that religion had no barriers and a person was only accountable to God for his actions and not others. This resulted in an uproar since this was an unusual thing in that time. Females were suppressed and they were not supposed to express their perspectives of understanding religion. This led the state to take action against her and the Governor of Massachusetts imposed a ban on her ceremonies where she openly declared and taught her beliefs to other women and she was asked to undergo a court trial. The governor criticized her by saying "by the general assembly as a thing not tolerable nor comely in the sigh of God, nor fitting for your sex"2. Th is statement clearly indicates the male