Monday, September 30, 2019

Problems of Small Scale Industries

The path of small entrepreneurs is not rosy. Small entrepreneurs face the following types of problems: (1) Problem of raw materials: A major problem that the small entrepreneurs face is the procurement of raw materials. They have to confront with numerous problems like; i. Availability of inadequate quantity ii. Poor quality of materials iii. High cost of raw materials etc All these factors adversely affect the proper functioning of small units. (2) Problem of finance: Finance is one of the most important problems faced by small entrepreneurs.As finance is the life blood of a business organization and no business organization can function properly in the absence of adequate funds. The problem of finance in small sector is mainly due to two reasons i. e. (i) Scarcity of capital in the country as a whole. (ii) Weal credit-worthiness of small units in the country. Due to their weak economic base, they find it difficult to take financial assistance from the commercial banks and financial institutions. Therefore, small entrepreneurs have to obtain credit from the money lenders on a very high rate of interest. (3) Problem of marketing:One of the major problems faced by small entrepreneurs is in the field of marketing. They are not in a position to get first hand information about the market i. e. information about completion, taste, liking disliking of consumers. Therefore, they are not able to upgrade their products according to the changing business environment. These small units acceding to the changing business environment. These small units often do not process any marketing organization. As a consequence, their product quality compares unfavorably with the quality of the products of the large scale industries.Therefore, these industries suffer from a comparative disadvantage as compared to large scale industries. (4) Problem of under utilization of capacity: Most of the small entrepreneurs are suffering from the problem of under utilization of capacity. Small s cale units are making only 40 to 50 percent use of their installed capacities due to various reasons such as shortage of finance, raw-materials, power and under-developed markets for their products. (5) Outdated technology: Most of the small entrepreneurs depend upon old techniques and equipment.These units find it very difficult to modernize their plant and machinery due to limited capacity and capital. He quality of products and productivity tend be low in the absence of modern technology and that too at higher cost. They are in no position to complete with their better equipped rivals operating modern large scale units. For example, Khaki products even after government subsidy seem to be costlier. (6) Poor project planning: Poor project planning is another problem faced by small entrepreneurs.In the absence of education and experience, these entrepreneurs do not attach much significance to viability studies. They do not bother to study the demand aspect, marketing problems, sourc es of raw materials. Inexperienced and incompetent entrepreneurs often submit unrealistic feasibility reports and incomplete documents which invariably result in delays in completing promotional formalities. They cannot afford to avail services of project consultants due to limited financial resources. (7) Inadequate infrastructure:Insufficient quality and quantity of transportation, communication and other basic services particularly in backward areas is another problem. Inadequate infrastructure results in under utilization of capacity and wastages. Inadequate infrastructures also adversely affect the quality, quantity and production schedule of the enterprises operating in these areas. Therefore, their functioning will become uneconomical and unviable. (8) Problem of skilled manpower: A small entrepreneur located in backward area may not have problem of unskilled workers but it may be exposed to the problem of non-availability of skilled workers.Skilled workers may be reluctant t o work in their areas and small scale enterprise may not afford to pay the wages and other facilities demanded by these persons. Unavailability of skilled manpower result in lower productivity, deterioration of quality, increase in wastages, rise in other overhead costs and finally adverse impact on the profitability of these small scale units. (9) Managerial problem: Another serious problem for small scale units is managerial inadequacies. Modern business demands vision, knowledge, skill, aptitude and whole hearted devotion.The managerial competence of the entrepreneur is very important for the success of any venture. An entrepreneur is required to undergo training and counseling for developing his organization revolves. Therefore, he must be fully conversant with all aspects of management. Lack of proper commitment and managerial skill will add to the problems of entrepreneurs. (10) Other problems: In addition to above discussed problems, the small scale industries have been const rained by a number of other problems such as trained technicians, technological obsolescence, unorganized nature of operation etc.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Critical Review for a Research Article Based on Grammar Translation

INTRODUCTION For centuries, Strategies on teaching and learning second language has been formed and apply in the classroom. Based on that, many researches has been conducted to test these methods in teaching and learning process to examine whether it is efficient or just a waste of time. By reading through these researches, teacher has been given responsibility to choose which methods that can be adaptable to their own respective classroom and how it would help them with the lessons.Through this project, we have chosen a research articles that was conducted in China to find out how a specific teaching method will help in the teaching and learning process by examining the research articles written by Lingjie Jin, Michael Singh, and Liqun Li. Furthermore, we will identify the teaching methods that were used by them and it relevance to the teaching and learning process in China.The study sought to investigate whether the communicative approach could help students acquire their vocabular y while reading through communicative activities, and develop their ability of using language and arouse their interest in learning English. 1. 0 METHODS USED IN THE STUDY. 2. 1 The Grammar Translation Method This method is more focusing on memorization of verb paradigms, grammar rules and vocabulary. Application of this knowledge was directed on translation of literary texts which is focusing on developing students’ appreciation of the target language’s literature as well as teaching the language.Written and oral translation plays a prominent part in classroom work. This encourages the learners to think and translate into their first language. Classes were conducted in the  native language which is the first language. A chapter in a distinctive textbook of this method would begin with a massive bilingual vocabulary list. Grammar points would come directly from the texts and be presented contextually in the textbook, to be explained elaborately by the teacher. In thi s method, while teaching the textbook the teacher translates every word and phrase from English into the learners' first language.A number of methods and techniques have evolved for the teaching of English and also other foreign languages in the recent past, yet this method is still in use especially in Asian country such as China. It maintains the first language of the learner as the reference particularly in the process of learning the second/foreign languages. The main principles on which the grammar translation method is based are the following: 1. Translation interprets the words and phrases of the foreign languages in the best possible manner. 2.The  phraseology  and the  idioms  of the target language can best be assimilated in the process of interpretation. 3. The  structures  of the foreign languages are best learned when compared and contrast with those of first language. 2. 2 The Communicative Language Teaching Method Communicative has been developed by Britis h Applied linguists as a reaction away from grammar-based approaches. CLT also places great emphasis on helping students use the target language in a variety of contexts and places. It is a great emphasis on learning four language skills – listening, speaking, reading, writing.Its primary focus is on helping learners create meaning rather than helping them develop perfectly grammatical structures or acquire native-like pronunciation. This means that successfully learning the English language is assessed in terms of how well learners have developed their communicative competence, which can loosely be defined as their ability to apply knowledge of both formal and sociolinguistic aspects of a language with adequate proficiency to communicate. CLT is usually characterized as a broad approach to teaching, rather than as a teaching method with a clearly defined set of classroom practices.As such, it is most often defined as a list of general principles or features; 1) An emphasis o n learning to communicate through interaction in the target language. 2) The introduction of authentic texts into the learning situation. 3) The provision of opportunities for learners to focus, not only on language but also on the learning management process. 4) An enhancement of the learner’s own personal experiences as important contributing elements to classroom learning. 5) An attempt to link classroom language learning with language activities outside the classroom. 2. BACKGROUND OF CLT AND GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHODS IN CHINA The main purpose of CLT is to develop learners’ communicative competence. Communication is important in order to follow with the development of economy. When communicative language teaching (CLT) was introduced in China at first, it met with considerable resistance (Li, 2003; Zhu, 2003; Hu, 2002). Its pioneers changed the traditional grammar-translation method into a student-centred communicative approach. It is become unusual in learning f or the students because they need to communicate in class rather than hearing the teacher explanation.English language teaching in China was established by divergent stories and not a single narrative. According to Rao (2002), in learning the English language, the Chinese learners are more focusing on reading and writing; grammar and translation; memorization of vocabulary. However, the traditional grammar-translation method failed to make them improve in their communicative skill. In order to catch up with the development of economy and promote exchange, students’ communicative competence even their overall ability in language need to be improvedMost of the ELT teachers who had adopted CLT method grew less confident of it. This is because of their qualification and the National Testing System. At the end of 1990s’, a person named Zhu has summarized with an increasing series of CLT text books that were published. CLT started to be accepted and teachers were encouraged to teach communicatively and interactively in classes. Students were unable to communicate effectively in foreign language and they were dissatisfied with their communicative competence skills.Although CLT was introduced into the Chinese EFL classes in the early 1980s, the traditional grammar method is still employed in most classes. Before 2000, college English text books were used in most universities for more than 10 years designed for traditional methods such as grammar translation method. The students were being used to passive and obedient to teachers, waiting patiently and quietly what teachers give them. An experiment project was conducted about college English teaching with communicative approach and a new series of textbooks.The purpose was to find out the results of applying and assess of effectiveness of the communicative approach in English reading classes. 3. 0 PROCEDURES OF THE STUDY An experiment project was conducted about college English teaching in Automobile Coll ege of Jilin University. The study began on September 2002. 8 non-English major classes were chosen at random. 4 classes will use CLT method in the teaching and learning process (Group C) and another 4 classes will used grammar-translation method (Group T). It lasted for 2 semesters with 116 participants on Group C and 118 on Group T.Jin, Singh, and Li prepared a Pre-treatment questionnaire asked about the students’ perception of the discourse structures and reading strategies at the beginning of the semester. 116 students received the questionnaire and returned them. Then, they were told about learner-centred approach, learner autonomy, the roles of themselves and teachers in class. To conduct the study on communicative approach, three steps were taken, which is a warm-up activities, reading activities, and follow up activities. 3. 1 Warm up activitiesStudents were required to do a group discussion, pair work and individual presentation to familiarise the topic that they wer e going to read. The need of such thing is to make sure that everyone will take part in the activities. Teachers will sometimes have to join in as a partner. The students’ interest in English learning was encouraged in such a dynamic and active atmosphere. 3. 2 Reading activities In order to make sure that students understood the global structure and was aware of the main idea in the material they were reading, teacher and students analysed the characteristics of different discourse structures together in class.Predictive and jigsaw reading activity were organised to improve students’ clarity of the discussion. 3. 2. 1 Predictive Reading Activity The activities was suitable for narrative passages which were divided into parts for one group, then another to read one in limited time, then they also were asked to work in small group and had to offer their own prediction and share with the whole of the class. After that they went on to read and test their different expecta tions. Whoever share the same ideas with the author would be very excited, others with different prediction were amused, too. . 2. 2 Jigsaw Reading Activity Teacher divided the selected material into sections and divided students into group; with limited time given, they were asked to read only one paragraph for each group to find a main idea and prediction for the next and before the paragraph. When they come into problems, they will try to solve it discussing issues with their peers. There are two procedures for this activity: A- First, one student from each group made a report on their findings and other students will have to listen attentively to take note.After all the reports, students have collected all the main content from all groups then in their group, decide the order of the paragraph. At the end of the activities, the whole class will agreed on the logical sequences. B- Secondly, students were divided into different groups, with each member coming from a different group . Each student in the new group brought their materials and all of them organised the passage according to the most logical order. 3. 3 Follow up Activities By the end of the activity, teacher asked questions about the passage to acquire the feedback from the students.All the activities were arranged for all students in the class to participate actively in the interactions and eventually improved their overall English language ability. 4. 0 OUTCOMES The study done by Lingjie Jin, Michael Singh, and Liquin Li has achieved the following result which is the comparison on test result, time taken by the teacher in class, and feedback between Group C and Group T which practiced the Communicative Language Teaching and Grammar-Translation methods in class for two semesters respectively. 4. 1 Test ResultStudents were required to take a test paper to check their skills on reading (R40), listening (L15) and vocabulary and structures (L15). The numbers being allocated to it are the fullest mark s. Test papers were exactly the same in listening and reading. The part of vocabulary and structures were all from their respective textbooks. TEST/GROUP| GROUP C| GROUP T| R40| 30. 18| 29. 56| L15| 10. 58| 8. 54| V15| 9. 09| 8. 22| Table 1 : Test result for Group C and Group T Judging from the result of the test, students in Group C did better than those in T-group in all aspects.They were especially superior in listening, and slightly better in vocabulary. This does seems that a communicative approach can improve students’ performance in examination and does not undermine their capacity to succeed in tests. 4. 2 Tape Result The process of teaching and learning of the groups were recorded in audio and checked to see the differences between the two classroom management with grammar-translation and communicative approaches. In the GT classes, the teachers’ lectures took about 91% of the time in class.On the other hand, 64% of the time was spent in student-centred activi ties which ultimately give chances for all students in the classroom to speak English. 4. 3 Feedback Comments on the training program were obtained for a group of college students just graduated from high-school. 29 people out of 30 showed a favourable attitude and acknowledged their progress in all of listening, speaking, reading and writing skills during the three-month training. From the 116 students, 85% of them said they liked the CLT methods better.Students in Grammar-Translation group just sat there nodding mechanically with no chance to speak language. They commented that the teachers were training them to be like robot because they just accepted what the teachers gave them. At the end of the first semester, three university supervisors observed the class with CLT methods and confirmed the active, motivating atmosphere and the positive, effective functions of it. 5. 0 CHINESE STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS ON THE TEACHING METHODS. Another research study has been conducted by Z .Rao (2002) to investigate Chinese students’ perceptions of communicative and non-communicative activities and their difficulties in EFL classes that used CLT method. The instruments include a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. 30 Chinese English-major college students were chosen at random from those who exposed to CLT for completing a survey. 15 of them were sophomores, 15 were juniors, with 21 females and 9 males, ranging in age from 18 to 23. The questionnaire consisted of three parts. Part A was about the students’ background, English proficiency and their opinions of communicative and non-communicative activities.Part B composed of 19 items asking about communicative and non-communicative activities. Part C invited students to explain their difficulties in communicative activities in class. 5. 1 Research results. The data was examined after it was collected and analysed inductively. The survey results showed that the students preferred non-communicativ e activities, compared with communicative ones although they liked a variety of class activities. Almost all students preferred teachers’ grammatical explanations in English mother-tongue-avoidance strategy in class.Sometimes the lack of authentic English context and confidence in themselves prevent them from participating in communicative activities. Some dynamic, creative activities were welcomed by good English learners. All students thought it helpful for teachers to direct class discussions, and they were they were interested in authentic English materials, e. g. newspaper or magazine articles. All students were interested in CLT methods in class, twenty-two of whom liked non-communicative activities better, and eight preferred communicative activities.All of them thought the combination of communicative and non-communicative activities was better. Because of most examinations were grammar-based, and many students’ motivations for learning of English was career-or ientated. They didn’t attach importance to communicative activities although they were interested in them. And 25 of 30 students thought they were used to the traditional grammar-translation method which was teacher-centred, textbook-driven and emphasized rote memory. They consider their teachers were authority and reluctant to challenge them. CONCLUSIONAfter a deep look into the research articles conducted by three capable and professional professor of English Education, we realise that most classes in China uses Grammar-translation method on their teaching and learning process instead of the more modern approach on language teaching such as CLT. It is by no means an expired approach because students in China still preferred to use the method and claim it sufficient in learning English language. The paper done by Li, Jin, and Singh has explored the CLT method to college English and compared them with traditional method of grammar-translation.Li (2003) summarises that judging from the feedback from the students and the results of examinations, communicative approach was advantageous and favourable, it aroused their interest in English language and developing their learner autonomy. Although the study shown that CLT method is much more efficient with a higher result on English language skills (listening, speaking, writing, and reading), Rao (2002) has conducted one research on students’ own perceptions instead of looking at the end result of students’ proficiency in English language which resulted in favour of the more traditional method of grammar-translation.According to Rao (2002), teacher may help their students understand the nature of the language, the features of CLT, the function of the class, the role of student and the teacher. They could create environment for students to practise the language which give them some insights into real-life situation. Adding to that, teachers could be facilitators that help students to access authen tic English language materials. It will offer students knowledge into other nations, peoples, ultures, and everything significant. Thus it has come to our understanding that even though both methods might be applicable to English language classes depending on the variable of the students’ conception and environment, teachers could be the initiators that encourage students to accept the other modern methods and be the one who clear away misconceptions that might be used to hinder the teaching and learning process in classroom.REFERENCES 1- Lingjie Jin, Michael Singh, Liqun Li; Communicative Language Teaching in China: Misconceptions, Applications and Perceptions. (2005) Australian Association for Research in Education. 2- Rao, Z. (2002), Chinese Students’ Perceptions of Communicative and Non-Communicative Activities in EFL Classroom. System 30, pp. 85-105. 3- Xiao Qing Liao; How Communicative Language Teaching Became Acceptable in Secondary Schools in China.The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. VI, No. 10, October 2000; http://iteslj. org/. 4- Rao Zhenhui; Foreign Languages College, Jiangxi Normal College, China. Modern vs. Traditional. Taken 10 October 2012 from http://eca. state. gov/forum/vols/vol37/no3/p27. htm. 5- Rhalmi Mohammed I’m Rhalmi Mohammed; articles on Grammar Translation Method (April 2009) and Communicative Language Teaching (Sep 2009) taken on October 2012 from http://myenglishpages. com.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Introduction to Rhetorical and Analytical Writing Essay - 2

Introduction to Rhetorical and Analytical Writing - Essay Example The society of America is amongst the most dynamic ones in the context of cross cultural individuals. It has for decades remained center of attention for people from different parts of the world, as a result bringing along different ethos, different norms, different personalities and other elements. This at times makes it difficult for smooth running and more often than not, conflicts and contrasts are seen with regard to their co existence. The movie overall shows local inhabitants how they are divided, fragmented within, then it shows people who have long settled in American society and how they undertaken their own existence. Another example presented is that of a American born Japanese origin individual and the identity crisis they are faced with. All relating to the social context of the American society and individual’s personality. The very first scene of the movie challenges the audience and invokes the questions of helplessness and fragmentation that the American society exhibits. The first scene of the movie sets a strong foundation for the overall theme of the movie and the future events that are to be followed. The movie has a clear purpose and objective to its making. It is one of those movies that carries the social and cultural meaning that needs to be conveyed to the masses. The movie has a message for gender equality, words against racial discrimination, and clear message against the ethnic conflict and the challenges that America faces in the light of cross cultural existence. The movie quite successfully addresses the problems faced and in a covert way presents them before the eyes of American citizens. It is in a way highlighting of the problems which in turn would enable overcoming these problems. The movie and its plot aims at highlighting the challenge of ethno centric approach that is carried by number of individuals in the American society. Parts of the movie depict the

Friday, September 27, 2019

Jurisprudence in Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Jurisprudence in Law - Essay Example In a legalist hypotheses cosmos, eschatological issues are always at hand and must always be subject to lawyers as they can themselves never be ultimately determined (Macdonald and Kleinhans 1997, p. 25). Having picked up our eyes up to the sky we face the confrontation of thinking about the interaction of law again, and from where can we discover a methodology to surmount the hypothetical difference lies between law and human contact The legal pluralist project is, certainly, not about paying any attention to differences by counting them under a structural-operational mold that claims to find a solitary justification for the different magnitudes of legal normativity1 (B.Z. Tamanaha 1993, pg. 192). But this keeps away from the predicament of responsibility only by abstaining from (in any case apparently) any grave commitment with normative case. One might ask whether this provides any proper knowledge and information on the nature of law. Somewhat, the objective is to represent legal and social observable facts with respect to each other and in their full opulence and aspects, inquiring and checking conceptions and classes by which legal and societal life are presented as sporadic (D aniel 2001). LegaLegal pluralism has developed as a response to the leading viewpoint of "lawful centralism", explicitly the standpoint that "law is and ought to be the law of the country, uniform for all people, not including all other laws, and managed by a particular set of state bodies" (Griffiths 1986: 3). As vehemently nurturing a pluralistic insight of social existence soaked with diverse normative arrangements, Griffiths espoused an exceptionally colossal reflection of the state itself. The texts on legal pluralism have tendencies to speak the words of social science, as suited in its foundation in anthropology and sociology (Sally Engle 1988). It takes a peripheral standpoint that is concerned with unfolding the way wherein norms build up, set it, and are being relevant in societal contexts. It is concerning with distinguishing the existence and process of those traditions and norms. Establishing the law is conjured up as an issue of attaining information, of discriminating the norms fu nctioning in a social field (Sally Engle 1988). The norms are alleged to be present. The objective of intellectuals is to distinguish and illustrate them. Legal pluralists don't, on the other hand, treat law in the naive way now and then ascribed to the legal theorists: they don't mull over law minimally to be anything board of adjudicators and legal representatives happen to do, as the plain practices that are carried out by lawyers, deprived of all logic of commitment. Diverse pluralists give an explanation for the compulsory force of norms in a different way. Some, like Sally Falk Moore (1978), give emphasis to functionalist details: norms enable inevitability and hence harmonization in human contact; they come out and are continued by the requirement to smooth the progress of societal interaction. Her lawful pluralism has a clearly embittered nature, paying limited concentration to assertions of cultural legitimacy or opinion about 'fair dealing', justice. Actually, she is in general nonchalant with the sources of norms. In her work, the norms have a tendency to be set

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Any thing realated to linguistics and teaching English as a foreign Essay

Any thing realated to linguistics and teaching English as a foreign language - Essay Example Littlewood (1983) noted "Learning refers to conscious process of internalizing a second language. Learning to use a second language freely is a lengthy and complex process. Different people have different criteria for learning language, few stress on accuracy (grammar, vocabulary, listening, written production etc.) while others on fluency (reading, phonology, spoken production, accent, etc.) but almost everyone agree that our primary purpose of language development is to be able to speak in the target language. However, in recent years the stress is on how to teach languages, which is increasingly guided by the dominant aim of promoting the learner's communicative competence. Similarly, all the recent definitions of language learning also involve communicative point of view by one way or another. "Language learning is a neutral response to communicative needs," says Littlewood (1983). The approach that needs to be taken according to is not all about sentence structure and vocabulary but "it must also involve an understanding of how people use these linguistic forms in order to communicate." suggested Woodhead; Miller; Oshea (1981). Bourges (1964) also claims that "some basic awareness of the total linguistic process" is very essential," otherwise students can never be competent to use the second language. There fore, the learners must be aware of the value of their learning and how will matter in all spheres of his life outside the classroom, in which it has to be written and spoken. English for what English is an international language. However, for most of the third world countries, it has a position of second language. At present, English is fast gaining grounds in Non-Western countries; most of them fall in 'developing' countries category. English is no longer a language of West but it has become a language of the person who uses it. Second language learning (English) has become a necessity to most of us, for some the reason is instrumental for others it is personal. Most of us, in this situation learn second language for instrumental purpose. Recently, it has been realized that most of the students will need second language for knowledge, societal, career, or entertainment's sake. River (1983) noted that "consumers are not only students, but also the society of which they are a part." Therefore, second language is one institution that learners must master in order to perform proficiently in other subject areas as well as in society. The main component, which makes English primary for learners, is that knowing a second language will more or less give surety of a better economic status. As job markets have become increasingly competitive now and it's not enough to know one language, since all the official work is done in English. For a perspective employee, English is a need and an added advantage to progress quickly by accessing any related knowledge through different channels. As River (1984) says "people's personal attitude towards the second language matters a great deal, as also a degree and nature of socio-economic demands for it." Spoken language is also required to keep the up social relationships. Colleges and schools have a role to perform since they introduce them to a wider

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Change management of large scale enterprise Essay

Change management of large scale enterprise - Essay Example From the onset, it is important to note that enterprises exist to give value to their stakeholders through the operation in an atmosphere that gives value, while at the same time minimizing risks and the responsible utilization of the resources available. In an environment that is rapidly changing, the faster setting of directions and faster reaction to the change is essential as well as the sharing of the decision-making among stakeholders. Business enterprises that want to ensure that are successful implement overarching systems of governance in order to achieve business aims at all levels of operation and that IT governance practices and IT outcome are correlated in the sense that stronger IT governance practices give better IT governance outcomes. Business enterprises in general are complicated entities that must incorporate technological and financial systems operating in a dynamic market and business circumstances that are not certain requiring change management from time to ti me. Most of these businesses are large-scale with a distributed system characterized by highly complex that involves the interaction of many aspects including humans, services, applications and devices. Due to this complexity, enterprises may have inefficiencies such as unnecessary human labour and under-utilized information technology devices and the lack of modelling or optimization of the operations of the business. This leads to delays and latencies that may be caused by traffic bottlenecks and engineering or design that is imperfect that therefore requires the businesses to change or evolve into better forms that exhibits improved performance. In our research paper, we review the business enterprises as large-scale and distributed system with specific dynamics exhibiting a typical behaviour of which adaptability or system change is the key to the viability of the business. To pursue this, we postulate that the longevity of a business enterprise is determined by its ability to a dapt to changes over a long duration of time, depending on either the natural systems or the artificial systems that are dictated by intelligent but conscious decisions in line with the market conditions. Whereas previous work have focused on the structural features of information technology governance, there are concepts of IT governance that must be endeavoured in order to appreciate IT governance process and enterprise change. It is notable that regardless of the market dynamism, effective IT governance can only be achieved through the strategic integration of both IT and business decisions and the establishment of collaborative relationships amongst the stakeholders concerned. Therefore, the question that begs to be answered is what procedure or mechanism is necessary in the IT governance in the current business environment. Past studies have only focused on the structural mechanisms and ignoring process mechanisms that have resulted in partial leading to limited understanding o f IT governance. However, present studies address the social and procedural mechanisms for the governance of IT that makes it easier for any person attempting to manage large-scale enterprise change.

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

M&T Bank's Sustainable practices and analysis Term Paper

M&T Bank's Sustainable practices and analysis - Term Paper Example (M&T Bank : Facts & Figures) With the growing awareness about the importance of sustainable growth, more than 150 financial institutions across the planet have signed the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) symbolizing their commitment towards sustainable development. According to Ebenezer Olufowose, Executive Director, Access Bank plc, sustainable business practices signify a balanced composition of â€Å"balancing economic growth, social development and environmental protection to ensure future generations are not compromised by actions taken today.† (Osae-Brown) Along with its primary business, M&T Bank has been highly active in initiating commendable sustainable practices. With the sustainable business practices for a better environment, social development and economic escalation mainstreamed into its primary business, M&T Bank portrays a comprehensive as well as a positive picture in its business sustainability report. Healthier Environment The US government in 19 80 initiated Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) under which banks can directly be held responsible for the environmental contamination proven on their part and to pay penalties to compensate for the loss to the environment. (Bouma et al 24) The Act, in the last three decades, has led to a rising concern amongst US banks regarding their existing environmental procedures and M&T Bank has quite followed the ongoing trend. M&T Bank has been awarded with two prizes for the two new innovatively designed branches which are known to use ‘green’ technology and reduce the consumption of natural resources which deplete the environmental healthiness. M&T’s newly constructed branch’s structure in Chambersburg, Pa primarily constitutes, apart from florescent lamps, LED’s and ceramic metal halide lights in the lobby, a large number of energy-reducing elements including a colonnade with a canopy which provides shelter to t he customers when they enter the branch and also protects the branch from direct sunlight. The branch also encourages its employees as well as the visiting customers to use fuel efficient vehicles as reserved parking areas are provided for these vehicles whereas racks are also available for bicycles. The glass walls provide for lesser dependence on artificial lighting and the routine work can be carried out by utilizing the natural light. The unique structure of the branch in Chambersburg is not the first of its kind. Similarly structured branch has also been constructed in West Seneca, NY earlier. The distinctive branch design depicts a serious intention of M&T’s management to try and improve its environmental contributions and its plans towards going ‘greener’ and more efficient in the future. Apart from the efficient design, M&T has implemented many changes including double side printing, paper recycling program, carpooling services, greater use of audio/video conferencing and, more importantly, installation of more efficient high-tech equipment which has reduced its carbon dioxide emission levels pretty sharply. Another measure taken in this respect is the setting up of a senior level advisory committee which evaluates the feasibility of environment-friendly alternatives available and helps the executives, operation managers and employees, at large, to contribute towards stepping

Monday, September 23, 2019

Rhetorical Analysis of a Controversy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Rhetorical Analysis of a Controversy - Essay Example In the wake of violence involving guns, the ban on guns is a hot topic nowadays. A lot of people have been killed in college or schools shootings in the recent years. Moreover, other crimes are also happening in the US. Having a gun for self-defense is a constitutional right of citizens of many countries around the world. Same is the case with the US. Every US citizen is allowed in the Constitution to keep an allowed model of gun for self-defense. So this constitutional section is a big bar behind banning general people to have guns. So it might not be possible to ban the possession of guns altogether. However, it is possible to regulate this matter in an intelligent manner, so that no one will be able to misuse guns which are meant to defend rather than to terrorize or kill others. In the recent years, we have seen many incidents around the world where a kid took the gun of his or her parents and shot either a parent or someone else. Although there are many shooting events that have triggered the discussion about banning the guns, the occasions or situations that gave rise to the controversy are the shooting accidents in the recent years. This occasion took lives of many people. In some cases, the shooter himself committed suicide after killing a lot of people. There were plenty of shooting incidents in the year 2014. A large number of precious lives ended due to these shootings. It is not difficult to identify that who is the stakeholder. There is no denying the fact that a person who dies cannot be gained back again.

Sunday, September 22, 2019

EBay as an International Business Firm Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

EBay as an International Business Firm - Essay Example French computer programmer Pierre Omidyar established the eBay on 3rd September, 1995 at San Jose, California. This establishment was actually in the favor of his wife to sale her collectibles. Initially the name of organization was AuctionWeb which was renamed as eBay in 1997 ( A laser printer amounting $14.83 was the first sold item. In November 1996, eBay made its first third-party licensing deal with Electronic Travel Auction to sell air tickets and different travel products. The site hosted 250,000 and 2,000,000 auctions during 1996 and 1997 respectively (Lewis, 2008). In 2002, the company bought PayPal, the leading transaction medium of the world. In 2008, the company’s revenue reached 7.7 billion dollars and the strength of manpower exceeded by 15,000. eBay successfully purchased the rights of Skype in 2009 for an amount of 2.75 billion dollars (Washington Post, 2009) Scope of Business eBay is an international firm which deals a huge of variety of items fo r sale and purchase. This huge list of items include a variety of collectibles in the field of electronics, fashion, motors, antiquates, sports, household items, movies, music and games etc. The firm uses PayPal for payment which is one of the fastest, secure, and the largest online transaction medium. Key Management of eBay Corporate and strategic planning are fundamentals of this facet of the firm. It includes the Management Information System (MIS) and some other controlling agencies like accounting, electricity, and human resource departments. However, eBay provides a web based environment works which is like newspapers-classified section. It entertains consumer to consumer transactions but does not take responsibility of the custody of sold items. Areas of Operations Presently eBay operates about 30 countries in terms of different categories of its business. The countries include Argentina, Austria, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Ge rmany, Greece, France, Hungary, Hong Kong, Ireland, India, Italy, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, United Kingdom, and United States ( Achievements After launching in 1995, the firm has done tremendous achievements in all facets of business. Today about 147 million people use this site in more than 30 countries across the globe. After 16 years, the company manpower strength has reached about 17,700 ( The company market capitalization had surpassed that of even, helping to make it the world’s most worthwhile Internet retail outlet. In 1997, there have been 40 types of products available; the actual publishing associated with collectibles as well as antiques experienced a significant growth. Other categories with regard to these things were demanded by customers. At social level, the primary concern of eBay had been to ascertain confidence amongst remote control as well as unknown potential traders that could possibly in no way have interaction yet again. This had been done through the review programs pertaining to setting up reputations with online community subscribers who

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Education System Essay Example for Free

Education System Essay The education system of India is very old. It has started from the ancient times. The Vedas, puranas, ayurveda, yoga represent some forms of education. There are evidences of imparting formal education in ancient India under the Gurukul system. Under the Gurukul system, young boys who were passing through the Brahmacharya stage of life had to stay at the Guru or the teachers home and complete their education. Earlier women and people of lower castes didnt have a right to educate themselves. But Jainism, Buddhism and Sufi movements had some liberating effects. The Britishers can be credited for bringing a revolution in the Indian education system because it is the English language and the reformation movements of the 19th century that had the most liberating effect in pre-independent India. India Education Present Condition  After independence, making education available to all had become a priority for the government. As discrimination on the basis of caste and gender has been a major impediment in the healthy development of the Indian society, they have been made unlawful by the Indian constitution. The 86th constitutional amendment has also made elementary education a fundamental right for the children between the age group- 6 to 14. According to the 2001 census, Total literacy rate 65.38%. The female literacy rate 54.16%. Only 59.4% of rural population is literate as against 80.3% urban population according to the 2001 census. Read more:

Friday, September 20, 2019

Anxiety interpretation

Anxiety interpretation Introduction Winning is the ultimate goal for performance success amongst elite athletes, and approaches to achieve a competitive edge and optimise sporting performances are eagerly sought after. Facilitative interpretation of anxiety symptoms to impending performance is one recognised attribute of individuals of a higher performance status, and empirical support substantiates this relationship (Jones, Hanton, Swain 1994; Jones Swain, 1995). One approach to attaining a more facilitative interpretation of anxiety is through using a combination of psychological skills (Hanton Jones, 1999a, 1999b; Thomas, Maynard, Hanton, 2007). Findings emphasise the role of cognitive restructuring strategies, such as goal-setting, to elicit positive interpretations. However, the debate over which psychological skills comprising multi-modal interventions are responsible for the favoured anxiety appraisals remains debatable (Fletcher Hanton, 2002). More specifically, recent advancements have identified individual psychological skills which promote positive competitive-anxiety responses (OBrien, Mellalieu, Hanton, 2009; Wadey Hanton, 2007, 2008), yet the mechanisms underlying how and why athletes interpret their anxiety levels as positive are still inconclusive. If athletes can develop their ability to perceive anxiety in a more positive manner, they are more likely to benefit from the accompanied performance advantage. Anxiety, traditionally believed to be a negative determinant of performance, has now become recognised as a stimulant (Jones Hanton, 1996). In response to this dual-anxiety response, Jones (1991) argued that the traditional measure of multi-dimensional anxiety, the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) (Martens, Burton, Vealey, Bump, Smith, 1990), restricted the measurement of anxiety response to â€Å"intensity† levels only; (cited in Jones Swain 1995). In response, Jones and Swain (1992) developed the modified version of the CSAI-2 in which a directional scale was collaborated. This broadened the approach adopted to measure intensity and perception of symptoms which were believed to mark the presence of anxiety. In an attempt to explain anxiety interpretation differences, Jones (1995), proposed a model of control, whereby athletes anxiety interpretation was governed by the confidence in their ability to control behaviour and the environment in which to achieve their goals. The model explains that a more positive expectancy of goal attainment is resultant of perceived control and ability to cope, and this generates a more facilitative interpretation of anxiety. This concept of control stemmed from Carver and Scheier (1988) research, who proposed that an athletes interpretation relies on their belief of being able to cope with anxiety levels and having the competency to meet the demands of the task. A wealth of research has based findings on Jones (1995) theoretical framework, whereby positive expectancies of goal attainment and facilitative appraisals of anxiety are inextricably wedded (Jones Hanton, 1999a; Jones Hanton, 1996; Wadey Hanton, 2008). Findings reported by Vealey, Hayashi, Garner-Holman, GiacobbiVealey et al. (1998) reinforces the connectivity of the components within Jones model (1995), in that the perception of self-control has been identified as the second most important source of self-confidence for athletes. Sources of self-confidence are vast and well documented (for a review see Bandura 1977, 1986, 1997; Vealey et alVealey, Hayashi, Garner-Holman, Giacobbi, 1998), and the challenge is to now determine those behaviours which are most conducive to self-confidence increments. The importance of self-confidence has been well-documented, and as one of the most important attribute to athletes, it also discriminates between elite and non-elite performers (Feltz, 1988). Previous studies have suggested that self-confidence functions as a buffer to experiencing debilitative anxiety levels (Hanton, Mellalieu, Hall, 2004). Findings reveal that athletes with superior levels of self-confidence consistently reported positive directional interpretations of the experienced anxiety (Jones et al., 1994), which lends partial support to Jones model (1995). Qualitative research by Hanton et al. (2004) which limited the assessment of strategy use to self-talk, thought control and imagery suggested, suggested that self-confidence ultimately gave rise to a sense of control over athletes performance. Further, self-confidence appeared to override negative thoughts and encouraged coping expectances; thereby was akin to an internal reassurance mechanism. Hanton et al. (2004) results also reported that confidence levels were associated with increases in effort and motivation, which allowed a more facilitative perception. This endorsed Eysenck and Calvos (1992) processing efficiency theory (PET) which proposed that high levels of confidence prevented high levels of cognitive anxiety from impairing performance through promoting motivation and effort investment to ultimately increase concentration levels. Given that Bandura (1977) believes engaging in behaviour enhances the self-confidence in ones ability of that behaviour, it is plausible to suggest that engaging in effective self-control processes may enhance athletes perception of their ability to control. The ability to self-control or self-regulate comprises the capability to manage ones affect, behaviour and cognitions to attain goals, and is suggested to be most necessary when faced with challenges or habitual actions are disrupted (Karoly, 1993). According to Karoly, (1993) â€Å"self-regulation refers to those processes, internal and/or transactional, that enable an individual to guide his/her goal-directed activities over time and across changing circumstances (contexts)† (p. 25). This is an independent process, and therefore success is most likely to be attributed internally, which according to Weiner (1979) will provide a source of greater motivation and self-confidence. A central self-regulatory behaviour according to Bandura (1991) is goal-setting. Bandura proposes goal-setting guides individuals behaviours, cognitions and affects to attain their desired performance standards. In essence, goal-setting provides a self-referenced benchmark against current performance which promotes self-evaluative and positive adaptive behaviour. Goals have also been suggested to enhance athletes motivation, effort, concentration and self-confidence (Gould, 2006). These subsequent self-reactive responses may therefore be targeted to align current behaviour with desired outcomes and assist in enhancing performance. Upon attainment of goals, mastery and personal capabilities in sport-specific skills are defined and awareness of success is heightened. Evidently goals maximise individuals opportunities to experience self-satisfaction, and therefore can function as a prospective pre-determinant of self-confidence. According to Zimmerman (1999), consistent self-regulated learners will assign explicit process and outcome goals, and express elevated self-confidence levels. Given that performance accomplishment is the most superior source of self-efficacy to athletes (Bandura, 1997), this may explain and strengthen the intimacy that has been associated between goal-setting and self-confidence. Synergistically, athletes with greater self-confidence levels have been shown to set more challenging goals and express greater commitment to attaining these goals (Bandura, 1991; Locke Latham, 1990; Wood Bandura, 1989). Bandura (1991) endorses the role of self-confidence as an important element of self-regulation and this has been supported by previous research in sport (Kane, Marks, Zaccaro, Blair, 1996; Williams, Donovan, Dodge, 2000). In view of the relationships between self-control, self-confidence and anxiety interpretation; consideration of the self-regulatory processes which are encompassed within goal-setting may help to ‘unmuddy the waters regarding the prospective underlying mechanisms to anxiety appraisal. The goal-setting process is facilitated by self-monitoring, which is another sub-function of Banduras self-regulation theory (1991). Self-monitoring is in essence observing and surveying ones own performance and results (Zimmerman, 2006), and has been positively related to improved physical learning and performance (Martin Ashnel, 1995; Zimmerman Kitsantas, 1996). Self-monitoring stimulates athletes to self-evaluate and thereby recognise favourable patterns between effective psychological states and successful performance outcomes, which in-turn provides a sense of ‘self-insight. Furthermore, this may guide behavioural change if performance was impaired or encourage the behavioural repetition if performance was enhanced. Consequently, self-monitoring offers opportunities for self-evaluation towards goal attainment, which reflects its self-diagnostic function. Previously it has been shown that self-monitoring, especially if positive, serves as a source of self-confidence (Bouc hard-Bouchard, 1990; Zimmerman Schunk, 2001; Martin Anshel, 1995). Moreover, the self-monitoring capability of athletes, both individually (Kim, 1999) and as a team (Kim Cho, 1996), influences corresponding performance expectations and the belief of mastery (as cited in Bechenke, 2002). Anxiety interpretation is most likely to arise through self-evaluative behaviours. Self-evaluation allows the analysis of the behaviour and accompanied outcomes, and is a subsequent sub-function following self-monitoring. This allows the athlete to determine whether to repeat this behaviour, if self-evaluation was positive, or set in motion a state of corrective change to attain future self-satisfaction, if this judgement was unfavourable (Bandura, 1991). The self-belief in goal mastery proceeds to influence the evaluative and reactive reactions to goal accomplishment or failure. Those of greater self-confidence evaluate failure to reach their goals as a motivator to continue striving. Subsequently they react to reduce the incongruity, by investing more effort and adopting more strategies to enhance the likelihood of goal mastery (Bandura Cervone, 1986). Complementary to these findings, self-confident individuals are predominantly more proactive in their self-reactions to goal accomplishment (Bandura, 1991). That is, once their goal has been mastered, they raise the bar further by introducing another challenging goal, which functions to progress performance improvements. Furthermore, Carver and Scheier (1986, 1988, 1998) have examined the means by which self-confidence effects self-regulatory behaviours. Their research reveals that when progression to goal mastery is hindered and becomes difficult, those with greater self-confidence in coping will react to anxiety levels positively, with renewed effort and concentration to their aspirations (as cited in Hanton et al. (2004). Jones and Hanton (1996) examined competitive anxiety symptoms with regard to goal attainment expectancies prior to competition. Findings demonstrated that competitive swimmers with positive expectations of goal-attainment found their anxiety symptoms were more facilitative to performance, than athletes with negative or uncertain goal expectations. These findings reflect equivalent reports by Hanton and Jones (1999a). This is in align with Jones (1995) control model and re-iterates the beneficial responses to positive goal-expectancies, which may be underpinned by higher self-confidence levels and consequent positive anxiety appraisals. Therefore, appropriate goal-setting is also paramount to optimise athletes expectancies of goal attainment to favour positive anxiety interpretation. Bandura (1991) suggests that acknowledgement of performance progress, influences individuals forthcoming behaviour, stimulates further goal setting and evaluative responses; thus goal-setting is a stimulant for other behavioural responses and appears to be a pivotal facet of self-regulation. Therefore there appears to be an overlapping effect between self-regulatory processes and self-confidence, in particular the goal-setting process. The strong predictive effects between goal-setting and self-confidence lends reasons to propose that goal-setting may be the most dependable predictor of self-confidence amongst other self-regulatory processes; this as yet remains indefinite. Evidence lends support to the role of goal-setting and positive interpretations of anxiety. Wadey and Hanton (2008) and OBrien et al. (2009) endorse the beneficial competitive-anxiety response with gaol-setting interventions. Wadey and Hanton (2008) has hinted that self-confidence and associated effort, motivation, concentration and perceived control may play a role to explain the positive anxiety response and goal-setting, however the mediatory role of self-confidence is as yet unconfirmed. Although Jones explanatory model (1995) and aforementioned research endorse the role self-confidence and perception of self-control plays in anxiety appraisal, they fail to acknowledge, identify and explain which self-regulatory behaviours allow self-confidence to override debilitating interpretations and why this relationship exists. In review of the literature five key self-regulatory processes have emerged and were measured using the Self Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (SRSQ); goal-setting, regulatory-responses, self-monitoring, self-awareness and self-talk. This was the first study to use this questionnaire and assess self-regulation, as a holistic process and differentiate between the key processes. The sources of self-confidence have been extensively reported, yet the variances by which self-regulatory processes contribute to self-confidence have not been compared. This questionnaire will allow the specific sub-functions of self-regulation that may enhance self-confidence to be determined. Previous studies report that elite athletes self-regulate more than their non-elite counterparts (Cleary Zimmerman, 2001; Anshel Porter, 1996), which is not surprising considering elites superior use of psychological skills (Thomas, Murphy, Hardy 1999).,. Therefore the self-confidence derived from these skills is likely to vary, thus competitive level is an important variable to control in this study. The Finally, the role of goal-setting, conceptualised as a self-regulatory behaviour , as a regulatory behaviour on anxiety interpretation willcan be investigated, which extends Hanton et al., (2004) study by including goal-setting as a strategy. . In essence, this study serves to discover if engaging in goal-setting has an indirect effect on anxiety interpretation by enhancing self-confidence. Specifically, it proposes to discriminate which facets of self-regulation are utilised to foster self-confidence, and thereby potentially mediate the competitive anxiety response interpretation. It is hypothesised that goal-setting will be the superior predictor of self-confidence, which in turn will mediate the relationship between goal-setting behaviours and anxiety interpretation. It is expected that self-confidence will be a positive partial mediator of facilitative anxiety interpretation.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Manic Hamlet in Shakespeares Hamlet :: GCSE Coursework Shakespeare Hamlet

Manic Hamlet      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Manic: affected by violent madness . When one is affected by mania it becomes the dictator of his or her actions .   This holds true in William Shakespeare's Hamlet . In the play, Hamlet is depressed to the point of mania. His entire existence is engulfed in his melancholia.   Hamlet's words, thoughts, interactions and most tangibly his actions make his heavy-heartedness an undeniable reality. The degree of Hamlet 's depression is set by his ennui and his melancholy itself is revealed through his tenacity. Throughout the play Hamlet's actions are plagued by his overbearing depression. This depression in combination with Hamlet's mania is what makes his a bipolar disorder sufferer.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Psychologically, mania is described as a mood disorder characterized by euphoric states ,extreme physical activity ,excessive talkativeness, distractedness, and sometimes grandiosity. During manic periods a person becomes "high" extremely active , excessively talkative, and easily distracted. During these periods the affected person's self esteem is also often greatly inflated. These people often become aggressive and hostile to others as their self confidence becomes more and more inflated and exaggerated.   In extreme cases (like Hamlet's) the manic person may become consistently wild or violent until he or she reaches the point of exhaustion. Manic depressives often function on little or no sleep during their episodes.   Ã‚  Ã‚   At the opening of the play Hamlet is portrayed as a stable individual . He expresses disappointment in his mother for her seeming disregard for his father's death. His feelings are justified and his actions are rational at this point, he describes himself as being genuine. As this scene progresses it is revealed that Hamlet views himself as being weak: "My father's brother, but no more like my father/ than I to Hercules" (1.2.153) The doubts that Hamlet has concerning his heroism become particularly evident in his actions as the story progresses. These doubts are a major hindrance to his thoughts of revenge.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Hamlet wishes to avenge the murder of his father and rectify this great injustice. The conflict between his desire to seek revenge and his own thoughts of incompetence is the cause of his initial unrest. "Haste me to know't , that I , with wings as swift / As meditation or thoughts of love , / may sweep to my revenge (1.5.29-31).   Here Hamlet pleads to the Ghost of King Hamlet to reveal the name of his murderer.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Civilization: Savagery, Power, Fear :: Free Essay Writer

Civilization: Savagery, Power, Fear Civilization is when man meets his basic needs. Civilization begins to form when man is searching for something more; something better than just meeting his basic needs, for he has already achieved this. Civilization forms slowly and carefully, and once it is formed, it can change and be destroyed at any moment. Civilization is as fragile as an eggshell, and it has three basic forces that can destroy it: savagery, power, and fear. Savagery is when a people revert back to their lost human instincts. Savagery is most often found in situations where the people are under extreme circumstances. One example of this is being stranded on a deserted tropical island. In William Golding's book, Lord of the Flies, he has done just that. Golding had his characters revert back to their lost human instincts. When the boys on the island finally catch a pig and get meat, the one hunter, and main character, Jack, cannot bear to let someone else tell his savage story. He begins, "We spread round. I crept, on hands and knees. The spears fell out because they hadn't barbs on. The pig ran away and made an awful noise-It turned back and ran into the circle, bleeding-We closed in-I cut the pig's throat-" (p. 74-75). Jack has reverted back to savage, uncivilized ways; his civilization has been shattered because of being stranded. Jack even gets the rest of the boys to join in, "As they danced, they sang. `Kill the pig. Cut her throat. Bash her in.'" Savagery can destroy civilization. It only takes a small number, even a single person, to revert back, and everyone will soon follow. Another example of people being savage is in the book, The Pearl, by John Steinbeck. In this book, when a family finds an unbelievably large pearl and tries to better their own lives with it, their friends and neighbors become their enemies, they even begin to fight in their own family. Greed has caused the family and the townsfolk to revert back to being savages. One example of this is when Juana, the wife, tries to rid them of the pearl because she knows of its bad nature. Kino, her husband, catches her, "Her arm was up to throw when he leaped at her arm and wrenched the pearl from her. He struck her in the face with his clenched fist and she fell among the boulders, and

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Comte vs Spencer :: essays research papers

Auguste Compte and Herbert Spencer were two of sociology’s first great theorists. Both Compte and Spencer studied society and the many ways in which people in society interact. Both theorists agree on certain issues pertainning to society and social science, yet they completely differ on their views of the function of sociology.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Spencer and Compte both realize that there is an order of co-existance in society. Society itself is made up of several components and parts which are subject to change and progress, thus altering society as a whole with these changes.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  With regards to the function of sociology, Compte believed that sociology was important due to the fact that it acted as a guide for people in order to make a better society. Compte saw evolution as very important and believed that every society went through three stages. These include; the theological stage, the abstract stge and the positive stage. Spencer on the other hand believed that sociology was necessary to demonstrate that people in society should not interfere with the â€Å"natural processes†. Spencer’s theories on evolution focused more on a different set of three basic laws. These include; the law of persistence of force, the law of the undestructibility of matter and the law of the continuity of motion.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Compte saw society in two major categories, the first was theological (military) which looked at the power of religion spiritual leaders as well as priests and those with intellectual power. The second was scientific (industrial) where there was a moral intellectual power, which included scientists and thinkers. Spencer saw society in two ways as well. The first included the movement from a simplistic society growing into a more complex one with various levels. The second was that society was changing from being more militant to industrial. Both Compte and Spencer seemed to share a common perspective on these particular views of society. When reviewing Compte’s methods, one sees that he focused primarily on empirical facts.

Monday, September 16, 2019

KFC vs McDonald’s

When you like fried chicken, KFC is always the first thing that comes to everyone’s mind. The reason for this is these companies claim of particular products that have became their trademark until now. The difference between McDonald’s and KFC is mainly the cuisine. The following report is a comparative analysis of the operational parameters of McDonald’s and Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) and projects an overview of various factors that differentiate the services of the two food giants. The survey was based on the consumer’s response on their choice between KFC and McDonalds and the basis of their choice was differentiated into various factors.MCDONALD’S: COMPANY PROFILEThe year 1940 is the birth year of McDonald’s and they have started Their Speedier Service System that was introduced in their very first restauran t is being followed until now in modern day fast food chains.Their very first mascot was a man with a head of a hamburger that is wearing a chef’s hat. It was replaced by McDonald’s ever popular clown man. McDonald’s is recorded to currently serving 58million customers each day in 119 countries.Their restaurants differ from their settings, some offer by-passers with their drive thru service, some have playgrounds for kids but are just counter service alone. Some of their restaurants have outer seats as well. McDonald’s signature colours are red and yellow.Their well-supported products are their famous hamburgers, breakfast offers, desserts, chicken sandwiches and French fries. For vegetarian customers, McDonald’s have offerings that are suitable for them. When it comes to regional branches, McDonald’s are known for being fond of offering these  countries food taboos for them to have some sort of relationship with people around. For example , Portugal McDonald’s are the only ones who have soup in the menu. Another example would be Indonesia for Mc Rice.MCDONALD’S IN INDIAThe year 1996 saw the opening of the first McDonald'sâ„ ¢ restaurant in India and since then, there have been numerous milestones for us. Here is a look at the last 17 years and all that was special about them.First McDonald'sâ„ ¢ restaurant opened on Oct. 13,1996 at Basant Lok in New Delhi. It was also the first McDonald'sâ„ ¢ restaurant in the world to not serve beef and pork based productsFirst Drive -Thru restaurant at Noida (UP) in 1997.First disabled friendly store at Noida (UP).First Mall location restaurant at Ansal Plaza (New Delhi) in 1999.First highway restaurant at Mathura (UP) in 2000.First thematic restaurant at Connaught Place (New Delhi) in 2001.The first restaurant in a food court at 3C's, Lajpat Nagar (New Delhi) in 2002.The first restaurant at the Delhi Metro Station at Inter State Bus Terminus. The first fundr aiser in association with ORBIS and Dr. Shroff's Charity Eye hospital. (Delhi)The first Dessert Kiosk – Faridabad (Haryana) in 2003.McDonald'sâ„ ¢ Delivery Service (McDeliveryâ„ ¢) introduced in New Delhi Local menu innovations like McAloo Tikkiâ„ ¢, McVeggieâ„ ¢ and Pizza McPuffâ„ ¢ exported to Middle Eastin 2004.McDeliveryâ„ ¢ on Bicycles flagged off at Chandni Chowk (Delhi) – another first  initiative by McDonald'sâ„ ¢ India.100th McDonald'sâ„ ¢ Restaurant opens in India in 2006.Also celebrated.10th Year Anniversary.First McDonald'sâ„ ¢ open in Eastern Region at Park Street, Kolkata in 2007.Also,first restaurant opened at Airport (Domestic Airport at New Delhi).First ‘Made For You' (MFY) restaurant opened at Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh.First 24 hours McDonald'sâ„ ¢ Restaurant opens at Old Delhi Railway Stationin 2008.Also,Chicken McNuggets ® launched in India. The first reimaged (new look) restaurant opened at Ambiance mall, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi in 2010.McDonald'sâ„ ¢ launches the global singing contest for its restaurant employees – Voice of McDonald'sâ„ ¢ in 2012 and also introduces Spice Festival from April – June – Launches Spicy variants (Limited time offer).New Product Launch – McEggâ„ ¢.McDonald'sâ„ ¢ Celebrates National Breakfast Dayin 2013.McDonald’s has developed a menu especially for India with vegetarian selections to suit Indian tastes and preferences. Keeping in line with this, McDonald's does not offer any beef or pork items in India. In the last decade it has introduced some vegetarian and non-vegetarian products with local flavours that have appealed to the Indian palate. There have been continuous efforts to enhance variety in the menu by developing more such products. McDonald's has also re-engineered its operations repeatedly in its 11 years in India to address the special requirements of a vegetarian menu. Vegetable products are 100% vegetarian, i.e. they are prepared separately, using dedicated equipment and utensils only pure vegetarian oil is used as a cooking medium.Cheese and sauces are completely vegetarian and egg less. Separation of vegetarian and non-vegetarian food products is maintained throughout the various stages of procurement, cooking and serving.KFC: COMPANY PROFILE KFC (Kentucky Fried Chicken) is a fast food restaurant chain headquartered in Louisville, Kentucky, United States, which specializes in fried chicken. It is the world's second largest restaurant chain overall (as measured by sales) after McDonald's, with over 18,000 outlets in 120 countries and territories as of December 2012. The company is a subsidiary of Yum! Brands, a restaurant company which also owns Pizza Hut and Taco Bell.KFC was founded by Harland Sanders, a colourful figure who began selling fried chicken from his roadside restaurant in Corbin, Kentucky, during the Great Depression. Sanders identified the potential of the r estaurant franchising concept, and the first â€Å"Kentucky Fried Chicken† franchise opened in Utah in 1952. KFC popularized chicken in the fast food industry, diversifying the market by challenging the established dominance of the hamburger. By branding himself as â€Å"Colonel Sanders†, Harland became a legendary figure of American cultural history, and his image remains prominent in KFC advertising. However, the company's rapid expansion saw it grow too large for Sanders to manage, and in 1964 he sold the company to a group of investors led by John Y. Brown, Jr. and Jack C. Massey.KFC was one of the first fast food chains to expand internationally, opening outlets in England, Mexico and Jamaica by the mid-1960s. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, KFC experienced mixed fortunes domestically, as it went through a series of changes in corporate ownership with little or no experience in the restaurant business. In the early 1970s, KFC was sold to the spirits distributor He ublein, who were taken over by the R.J. Reynolds food and tobacco conglomerate, who sold the chain to PepsiCo. The chain continued to expand overseas however, and in 1987 KFC became the first Western restaurant chain to open in China. The chain has since expanded rapidly in China, and the country is now the company's most profitable market.PepsiCo spun off its restaurants division as Tricon Global Restaurants, which later changed its name to Yum! Brands. KFC primarily sells fried chicken pieces and variations such as chicken fillet burgers (chicken sandwiches[US]) and wraps, salads and side dishes such as French fries and coleslaw, desserts and soft drinks, often supplied by PepsiCo. Its most famous product is pressure fried chicken pieces,  seasoned with Sanders' â€Å"Original Recipe† of 11 herbs and spices. The exact nature of these ingredients is unknown, and represents a notable trade secret. Larger portions of fried chicken are served in a distinctive cardboard  "bucket†, which has become a signature of the chain since being introduced by franchisee Pete Harman in 1957. KFC is known for the slogan â€Å"finger lickin' good†, which has since been replaced by â€Å"Nobody does chicken like KFC† and â€Å"So good†.KFC IN INDIA The first Indian KFC opened in Bangalore in June 1995. Protests ensued from left wing, anti-globalisation and environmental campaigners, as well as local farmers, who objected to the chain bypassing local producers. Many Indians were concerned about the onslaught of consumerism, the loss of national self-sufficiency, and the disruption of indigenous traditions. The protests came to a head in August 1995, when the Bangalore outlet was repeatedly ransacked.KFC Bangalore demanded, and received, a police van permanently parked outside for a year. Rural activist M. D. Nanjundaswamy subsequently claimed KFC would adversely affect the health of the impoverished, by diverting grain from poor people to make the more profitable animal feed. Former environment minister Maneka Gandhi joined the anti-KFC movement. KFC was also accused of using illegally high amounts of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and frying its food in pork fat.A second store opened in Delhi, but was closed by the authorities soon afterwards, purportedly for health reasons, but more likely to avoid a repetition of the Bangalore incident. The two stores only managed to attract a limited, affluent clientele, and KFC decided to abandon the Indian market. KFC returned to India in 1999, with a new Bangalore outlet. This was the sole KFC in India until 2004, when the chain began to expand, albeit with a makeover and a range of new vegetarian dishes. As of December 2012, there were 280 KFCs in the Indian market. As well as the standard KFC offerings, the chain sells a chickpea burger and hot wings with chilli lemon sprinkles.RESEARCH METHODOLOGYIn simple terms methodology can be defined as, it is used to give a clear cut idea on what the researcher is carrying out his or her research. In order to plan in a right point of time and to advance the research work methodology makes the right platform to the researcher to mapping out the research work in relevance to make solid plans.More over methodology guides the researcher to involve and to be active in his or her particular field of enquiry. Most of the situations the aim of the research and the research topic won’t be same at all time it varies from its objectives and flow of the research but by adopting a suitable methodology this can be achieved. Right from selecting the topic and carrying out till recommendations research methodology drives the researcher in the right track. The entire research plan is based on the concept of right methodology.More over through methodology the external environment constitutes the research by giving a depth idea on setting the right research objective, followed by literature point of view, based on that chosen a nalysis through interviews or questionnaires findings will be obtained and finally concluded message by this research. On the other hand from the methodology the internal environment constitutes by understanding and identifying the right type of research, strategy, philosophy, time horizon, approaches, followed by right procedures and techniques based on his or her research work. In other hand the research methodology acts as the nerve center because the entire research is bounded by it and to perform a good research work, the internal and external environment has to follow the right methodology process.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY USEDIn this project, the research used is qualitative research method focusing on what kind of reasons led to the comparison between the two. Large amounts of necessary data and information were collected from the internet.RESEARCH OBJECTIVETo conduct survey analysis on the consumer’s preference of food joint amongst McDonald’s and KFC.RESEARCH HYPO THESISWhen young consumers choose the fast food restaurants, I selected six factors as the major factors, which are price, food selections, taste of food, environment, service and brand image and I consider that everyone has different beliefs on the six factors.The Six Hypotheses to be verified in this Research Hypothesis 1 Compared with KFCï ¼Å'†Environment† is a competitive advantage of McDonalds Hypothesis 2 Compared with KFCï ¼Å'† Food Selection.† is a competitive advantage of McDonalds Hypothesis 3 Compared with KFCï ¼Å'†Price† is a competitive advantage of McDonalds Hypothesis 4 Compared with KFCï ¼Å'†Brand Image† is a competitive advantage of McDonalds Hypothesis 5 Compared with KFCï ¼Å'†Service† is a competitive advantage of McDonalds Hypothesis 6 Compared with KFCï ¼Å'†Taste of Food† is a competitive advantage of MacdonaldsRESEARCH FRAMEWORKThis research is to understand how young consumers select fast food restaurants. On the other hand, this can help the two fast food restaurants to know their drawbacks and edges for improving and maintaining. The questionnaire is designed base on six hypotheses. After analysis, the result will indicate if the hypotheses are confirmed or rejected, through which the advantages of two fast food restaurants and consumers’ perception will be revealed. SAMPLE FRAMEA questionnaire was designed and used to verify the six hypotheses. 40 people were surveyed on their choice and perception on both the restaurants.CHAPTER II: ANALYSIS PART I MCDONALDS VS KFC: ENVIRONMENT KFCUnlike some other international food brands available here in India, KFC offers the same taste and value no matter which part of the world you are. You can sit back, enjoy and be assured of the world class quality. The environment of its outlets should you choose to dine in is always informal and fun like a select few can offer. It focuses on self service. Many times both m en and women enjoying a meal alone without judgement and pleasant service. Everyday 8 million customers are served in KFC and this is not without reason. They have formally announced the absence of Trans-fats in their cooking oil thus making your occasional binge less worrisome.MCDONALD’SThere’s always a rush near McDonald’s because they have planned their locations very well near colleges, classes stations etc so before going home or during the lunch break many people come for a snack. There is also a special counter for home delivery. A major highlight of the chain. It’s the interior which attracts you to the place, especially the well polished and squeaky clean floors and good seating arrangement. There is no formal stuff in here and it truly follows the concept of self service. Mc Donald’s is one of the most happening hang out joints. In all, a very ambient atmosphere for dining out.MCDONALDS VS KFC: FOOD SELECTION KFCKFC is geared up to tap th e country’s Youth crowd.KFC has launched their new menu Streetwise„ aiming at the college goers. With â€Å"Streetwise†, KFC is offering a range of signature KFC products at affordable prices.KFC has also launched several new television commercial as part of the promotional activities for the new offering.KFC’s earlier menu consisted of Chicken Wings and Wraps which were too alien for Indian taste buds. Hence, KFC localized its brand by introducing the Veggie Options to its menu that included rice meals, wraps and side dishes that was desirable to the Indian consumers. Also, it stuck to eggless mayonnaise and sauces. Even its trademark chicken dishes were given a local flavour with the use of Indian spices and cooking techniques. The recently  launched Veg Zinger burger is at par with its chicken counterpart. Also, KFC has changed its target audience. From Higher Income group to Middle Income Youth. While they have localized the menu according to the Ind ian Taste they haven’t forgotten their originality that is resides in Chicken.MCDONALD’SMcDonald's regular scrumptious menu includes wide range of products like McAloo Tikki, Filet-O-Fish, Spicy Range, Chicken McGrill, McVeggie, Veg Pizza McPuff, Chicken Mcnuggets, Fries, Wraps, an assortment of Sundaes, Soft Serve and refreshing beverages such as Ice Tea & Cold Coffee with outstanding service in a vibrant and lively ambience, for which McDonald's is known worldwide.McDonald’s has also recently introduced Masala Grill, a range of grilled vegetarian and non-vegetarian products inspired by the kebabs of the province in Pakistan formerly called the Northwest Frontier Province. These products are wrapped in roasted chilli sauce, a specially-developed condiment, and are available both a la carte and in meal combos. The range comprises two products, namely the Veg Masala Grill which is a blend of potatoes and a soya patty flavoured with aromatic spices, and the Chicke n Masala Grill , which comprises a chicken mince patty seasoned with Indian herbs and spices.MCDONALDS VS KFC: PRICE COMPARISONKFCKFC globally enters the market using market skimming. Their products are priced high and target the middle to upper class people. Gradually they trickle down the prices focusing on the middle to lower class people to penetrate both sides of the market. KFC price their product keeping different points in view. They adopt the cost base price strategy. Pricing of the product includes the govt. tax and excise duty and then comes the final stage of determine the price of their product. The products are bit high priced according the market segment and it is also comparable to the standard of their product. Total Pounds of Chicken Served in KFC RestaurantAnnually =1.914 Billion Total KFC Chicken Pieces Sold Annually = 5.89 BillionTotal Retail Sales = $8.9 Billion Sales Price of per Chicken Piece =$1.51MCDONALD’SMcDonald’s has realized that, despite the cost savings inherent in standardization, success can often be attributed to being able to adapt to a specific environment. This is indeed the case with its implementation of its pricing strategy, which is one of localization rather than globalization.As a part of its business strategy to penetrate deeper into the new and existing markets, the forever young brand McDonald’s introduced Happy Price Menu at Rs.20/- in the year 2004 in India. This value for money proposition has been well accepted by the discerning customers. The communication towards this proposition has graduated over the years, but the Happy Price Menu platform has been consistent. It came up with a very grasping punch line  ³Aap ke zamanemein ,baap ke zamane ke daam ´in 2008. This pricing strategy was founded to attract middle class and lower class people and the effect can clearly be seen in the consumer base that McDonalds has now.It started offering value meals in a range of prices.Ensured afforda bility and attracted the widest section of customers. Brought the customer and provided arrange of entry-level products. Trial of those new items and graduate to higher-rungs. For E.g. – if a customer starts with McAloo Tikki, he will finally graduate to McVeggie and so in Nonveg. McDonalds has certain value pricing and bundling strategies such as happy meal, combo meal, family meal, happy price menu etc to increase overall sales of the product. MCDONALDS VS KFC: BRAND IMAGEKFCKFC holds the position of a youth based brand with its youthful, lively ambience of stores and the friendly service. In KFC feedback is taken from the customer in order to know the customer demands and then improvements are made in products. KFC focuses on pure and fresh food in order to create a distinct and clear position in the minds of customers KFC has a strong  brand name and they are leading the market in fried chicken. KFC uses its attributes to Position its Product (Fried Chicken). KFC positi ons itself as a youthful, quick service restaurant brand that serves unique, great tasting food and beverages. The focus of the brand strategy is to highlight this across all their communication, menu offerings and the experience that is delivered.MCDONALD’SAt first people were rather sceptical about this brand. It was a foreign brand and people dint know what to expect. But clearly now, this doesn’t seem to be that way. Now when one thinks about McDonalds, one thinks about a place to go and ‘hang out’ with our friends because it has a comfortable environment. At the same time it not very expensive and gives quick service and value for money. And most of us have grown up having a meal in McDonalds with a cardboard crown on our head, a balloon in our hands, sitting in Ronald McDonalds lap and walking out with a toy in the end and also a big smile. As we left the restaurant we just could not wait to go back and enjoy the whole experience all over again.It is things like these that create a certain kind of an impression, a perception, and an image in our heads that lingers on for most of our lives. McDonald’s wanted to position itself as ‘Indian’ and a promoter of ‘family values and culture’ as well as being ‘comfortable and easy’. Simultaneously the brand wanted to communicate that it was committed to maintaining a quality service, cleanliness and offering value for money. But at the end of it McDonald's means different things to different people and doesn't have one brand position.MCDONALDS VS KFC: SERVICEKFCSelf Service is the concept followed by KFC. It gets very crowded especially on weekends, but they have a very competent staff that provide quick service. It’s difficult to get a place to sit on weekends and takeaway seems to be the best bet. The staff is very polite irrespective of the maddening rush and always lends a ear for your complaints. Home delivery is one area where th ere have been complaints.MCDONALD’SThough there’s self service, i.e. you have to order at the counter and collect your items yourselves, the service is quick and sharp; and the people make sure you get the food as early as possible. It normally takes around 30 secs after taking your order to delivering the food at the best McDonald outlets. McDonald’s also provides home delivery which has been appreciated by the customers.MCDONALDS VS KFC: TASTE OF FOOD KFCThough the name KFC indicates chicken but that’s not the case. KFC has diversified itself in all the food items and that’s why they have shortened ‘Kentucky Fried Chicken’ to KFC. The food is delicious with less spicespices and good quantity and anyone fond of chicken can surely go there and gorge on the various chicken dishes. Though KFC is mainly famous for chicken, the vegetarians are also not disappointed here. There are as many varieties of vegetarian stuff as there are of chick en dishes. Typical chicken made by Indian style is not available here, but the combination of chicken is interesting here.MCDONALD’SMcDonald's strives to maintain its international quality standards in every single one of its outlets. Dealing directly with the farmers, McDonalds ensures that every ingredient is of the best quality. Strong supply chain efficiencies, cold chain delivery, minimum storage times, standard recipes and food that is specially ‘made for you' deliver freshness right to the customer's plates. Paying attention to minutest of details, McDonald's India has ‘Indianised' their menu with introductions like the Mc Aloo TikkiAlooTikki Burger, McSpicy Chicken Burger, McSpicy Paneer Burger and more. With due respect to local customs and customer sentiments, no McDonald's outlet in India serves either beef or pork. Furthermore, the vegetarian and non-vegetarian kitchens are completely separate.CHAPTER III: ANALYSIS PART II SURVEY ANALYSISThe report has been designed to study the consumer behaviour with respect to McDonalds and KFC. A questionnaire was designed in order to understand the  reasons of the consumer perception towards the two food giants. My method of going about the study at hand involved the basic survey method, whereby I put forward questions to individuals who were divided into the basic segments provided by and aimed at as either the source or target service provider. Question 1Which age group do you belong to?The first question was essentially designed to throw light on the age group of people visiting/dining at the food joints. This gave us an idea of the preference of a particular food brand among a given age group if any. For e.g. the HAPPY MEAL available at McDonald's attracted the major portion of the younger crowd. As a matter of fact as shown in the following questions, this particular strategy drained almost the entire young consumer segment. Of the individuals surveyed a majority of the individuals be longed to the 18-25 yr age group both for McDonald’s as well as KFC. Question 2What is your profession?This question was essential in calculating the trend of the customers who visit these food joints i.e. the working class of the people visiting the respective places. The survey revealed that the majority of people visiting both the places i.e. 46% for KFC and 55% for McDonald's were students. This thus lays direct stress on the strategies adopted by both the joints resulting in a heavy demand among the student group. Question 3Are you a vegetarian/non-vegetarian? This was essentially designed to demarcate the groups according to whether they were vegetarians or otherwise. It was a preconceived idea that the vegetarians preferred McDonald's of the two while KFC proved to be a non-vegetarian paradise. This thus showed a balanced market for McDonald's whereas a strong shift for KFC towards the non-vegetarian section. Question 4How do you consider the environment at both the jo ints? This question was essentially designed to find out what people think about the environment and crowd at both the joints. There is no significant difference observed when it comes to the environment and the experience of  people at both the joints. Question 5What is your saying on the pricing of both the joints?In KFC 31% found the food priced nominally and an equal amount of people surveyed i.e. 31% found inexpensive. Hence it was concluded that it dropped down to the individual in the case of KFC and there was no clear market trend. In McDonald's 46% found it nominally priced as well as value for money while just 8% found it expensive. Hence in terms of comparative study it was concluded that McDonalds was optimally priced although KFC wasn't overpriced either.Question 6What is your saying on the service provided by both the joints and which one would you prefer? This question was designed to find out the type of service provided by each of them and people’s percepti on on quality of service at these joints KFC got an upper hand when it came to service with 51 % people opting for it whereas 49 % opted for McDonald’s.Question 7Rate both the joints on the scale of 10 on the basis of taste of food This question was designed to get an idea about the taste of food provided by each of these joints. No significant difference was observed when it came to the food served by both the joints. Although KFC is known for their chicken dishes, it’s also come out with its vegetarian menu which is equally enjoyable. McDonald’s on the other hand had been the place for everyone since the very beginning. Therefore, when it comes to taste of food, both McDonald’s and KFC have been given equal preference.DIAGRAMMATIC REPRESENTATION1. Which age group do you belong to?2. Are you a Vegetarian/Non-Vegetarian?3. What is your Occupation?4. What is your saying on the pricing of the eat-outs?5. How do you consider the environment at both the eat-o uts?6. What is your saying on the service of the eat-outs and which one would you prefer?7. Rate both the eat-outs on the scale of 10 on the basis of taste of foodFINDINGSWhat do the young consumers care most? From the Histogram, it shows that the young consumers care about the service and taste of food most. Note that the score of rating is from 0 to 6 The results show that there are no significant difference on environment, food selection, brand image, service and taste of food and that means they are not the competitive advantages of McDonald. However, the price of McDonald is a competitive advantage of McDonald Young consumers generally considered that McDonald provides a more reasonable food price of food.CHAPTER IV: CONCLUSION/SUMMARY/RECOMMENDATIONS CONCLUSIONThis research studies the competitive advantages of two fast food restaurants, McDonald and KFC, from young consumers’ perspective. Summary of hypotheses test Hypothesis1 Compared with KFCï ¼Å'†Environmentà ¢â‚¬  is a competitive advantage of McDonald’s Rejected Hypothesis2 Compared with KFCï ¼Å'† Food selection† is a competitive advantage of McDonald’s Rejected Hypothesis3 Compared with KFCï ¼Å'†Price† is a competitive advantage of McDonald’s Supported Hypothesis4 Compared with KFCï ¼Å'†Brand image† is a competitive advantage of McDonald’s Rejected Hypothesis5 Compared with KFCï ¼Å'†Service† is a competitive advantage of McDonald’s Rejected Hypothesis6 Compared with KFCï ¼Å'†Taste of Food† is a competitive advantage of McDonald’s RejectedWhen young consumers selected a fast food restaurant, they care about the service and taste of food most. In order to increase the market share of young consumers, restaurant managers have to put plenty of efforts on the service and taste of food. Young consumers consider that the McDonald provides a more reasonable food price than KFC. To McDon ald, it’s an advantage against KFC and should be maintained. On the other hand, KFC should do a detail research about the reason why young consumers have such perception about the price of two restaurants.SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS SUMMARYIn India fast food market is strongly dominated by these 2 brands. But when it comes to comparing these two brands the above study brings us to a conclusion that as far as market presence and brand value is concerned McDonald's has definitely proved a point for themselves.But KFC who re-entered in 2003 has shown a rapid progress and no wonder if in the coming years KFC overtakes McDonald’s in the Indian market share. Both the food-giants have given each other immense competition in terms of customer satisfaction and promotional strategies.The range of products and offers offered by each is remarkable in every context. Although McDonalds has an upper hand with the vegetarian crowd because of its exclusive products, KFC is slowly catch ing up to the challenge. KFC provides vegetarian alternatives with an added advantage of a complete meal including rice and desert.Where McDonalds fall into the snack option KFC has covered the meal area.  Thus it is not quite evident which one can be termed as better than the other.RECOMMENDATIONS KFCKFC still needs to do a bit of re-vamp in its vegetarian menu and add more options to it. The fried chicken category already has more options and varieties as compared to the vegetarian section. The prices of KFC are reasonable as compared with other fast food restaurants. But as price is always a primary concern for the customer, therefore, they should adopt certain strategy to attract the customers. And it can only be done by lowering the prices. It could be by introducing some discount packages for families, employees, students or regular customers. The membership card can be used to provide certain extra value to the customer.MCDONALD’SOff recent, there have been a lot of complaints on the quality of food that one gets at McDonalds. This should be a matter of prime concern when it comes to the progress of the fast food restaurant. McDonald’s should start focusing more on improving the quality of products rather than being completely driven by quantity and variety. McDonald’s also needs to work on their advertising strategy. For example, the breakfast menu at McDonalds does not find many takers due to poor publicity. Ignorance of the breakfast menu at McDonald’s is one of the biggest drawbacks of this restaurant.